The largest American charitable contributions of 2008.

The largest American charitable contributions of 2008.

The largest American charitable contributions of 2008.

Analysis of the year's biggest philanthropists.
Jan. 23 2009 5:54 PM

Slate 60: Donor Bios

The largest American charitable contributions of the year.

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The art component of the pledge is also close to Rockefeller's heart. His mother, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, was a co-founder of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. He took several art-history classes at Harvard, but, he said, it wasn't until he visited about 30 museums during a trip through Europe that he realized that seeing original artworks up close provided a deeper understanding of those he had studied in class. Rockefeller also pledged $25 million to the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture in Pocantico Hills, N.Y., for its endowment. He and a daughter, Peggy Dulany, established the 80-acre farm and agricultural-education center in 2004, in memory of Margaret (Peggy) Rockefeller, his wife, who died in 1996 and was a lifelong advocate of farmland protection and local food production. Rockefeller made three other pledges: $5 million, of which $2.5 million has been paid, to the Mayor's Fund to Advance New York City, for the organization's MillionTreesNYC Project; $2 million, of which $1 million has been paid, to the American Museum of Natural History's Southwest Research Station in Portal, Ariz.; and $1 million, of which $500,000 has been paid, to the Museum for African Art in Long Island City, N.Y. Rockefeller also gave $1.5 million to the New York Botanical Garden, in the Bronx; $500,000 to the Nelson Mandela Foundation in Houghton, South Africa; and $300,000 to American Farmland Trust in Washington.

15. Jeffrey S. Skoll—$110.8 million to the Skoll Foundation. Skoll, 44, was the founding president of eBay, and he's the founder of Participant Media in Los Angeles. He gave $110.8 million to his foundation, whose flagship program is the Skoll Awards for Social Entrepreneurship. The awards are grants of approximately $1 million paid out over three years to groups that "apply innovative solutions to social and environmental issues, empowering people and communities to envision and create positive change," according to the foundation's Web site. The Skoll Foundation also provided grants of $883,000 over three years to the Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship at the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University, and $1.1 million over three years to Santa Clara University's Global Social Benefit Incubator, a program that explores ways to use technology to help people in developing countries. Skoll started the foundation in 1999. 


16. Stephen A. Schwarzman—$105 million to the New York Public Library and the Inner-City Scholarship Fund. Schwarzman, 61 and a co-founder of the Blackstone Group, a New York financial firm, pledged $100 million to the New York Public Library. The money will be used to renovate the institution's flagship building on Fifth Avenue and to build two new libraries in New York. Some of the pledged money will also go toward endowment and a program to expand the library's online services. Because of his pledge, library officials have named the Fifth Avenue facility for Schwarzman, who serves on the library's board of trustees. He said did not place any restrictions on how the money would be used because he trusts library officials to decide where funds are most needed: "They should have the maximum flexibility as to where that money goes and when. The board has already approved the general plan, and I don't see why I should make their lives more complicated in terms of executing it."

In addition, Schwarzman pledged $5 million to the Inner-City Scholarship Fund in New York to endow scholarships to allow needy children to attend Catholic schools in the city. He would not provide details of a payment schedule for either one of his pledges. Schwarzman is chairman of the board of trustees of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and serves on the boards of the Asia Society, the Film Society of Lincoln Center, the Frick Collection, and the New York City Ballet.

17. Gerhard R. Andlinger—$100 million to Princeton University. Andlinger, 78, founded Andlinger & Co., an international investment and management firm in Tarrytown, N.Y. He pledged $100 million to Princeton University to support research and education on efforts to prevent global warming. The money will be paid over four or five years. Of the total, $70 million will be used by the school of engineering and applied science to create a center for the study of energy and the environment. The remaining $30 million will go toward engineering research laboratories, the hiring of four faculty members, and an endowment to finance research programs that are too new to qualify for federal support. Some of the money will also support a program that will bring industry experts, policy makers, scientists, engineers, and scholars together to study and work on energy and environmental issues.

 Andlinger was born in Austria and came to the United States in 1948 when he won an essay-writing contest sponsored by the New York Herald Tribune. He earned a bachelor's degree in economics and Arabic from Princeton in 1952 and, later, a master's degree in business administration from Harvard. He then served in the U.S. Army, where he worked in military intelligence. He was a management consultant with McKinsey & Co. before starting his investment firm in 1976. In 2000, Andlinger gave Princeton $25 million to establish a center for the humanities, and in 1991 he gave $2 million for a professorship in social sciences.

17. Eli and Edythe L. Broad— $100 million to the Broad Foundations. Eli Broad is founding chairman of the KB Home Corporation and of SunAmerica, a financial-services company, both of which have headquarters in Los Angeles. The Broads pledged $100 million—of which $33.2 million has been paid—to the Broad Foundations, which support civic programs, contemporary-art museums, efforts to improve elementary and secondary public-school education, and medical and scientific research.

Last year the foundations awarded or pledged numerous grants, the largest of which was $400 million to endow the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, a biomedical-research center that is run jointly by Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. The Broad Institute brings together researchers from many disciplines to fight disease and conduct research on cancer, chemical biology, genome sequencing and analysis, and medical and population genetics. The Broads helped start the institute in 2003 with a $100 million donation.

The foundations also pledged $30 million to the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles to shore up the fiscally troubled museum's finances. Broad helped found the museum and serves on its board of trustees. The couple's foundations will match donations from others to the museum's endowment up to $15 million and give the museum $3 million a year for the next five years to support exhibitions.

17. Philip H. and Penelope Knight—$100 million to the Oregon Health & Science University Foundation. Phil Knight is a founder of Nike. The Knights pledged $100 million to the Oregon Health & Science University Foundation in Portland to support the university's cancer institute, which will be named for the Knights. Most of the pledge, $98 million, will establish a fund that Brian J. Druker, the institute's director, will be able to use for any purpose within the facility. His first priority, he says, will be to use some of the money to recruit 40 to 50 new doctors and researchers over the next decade. A portion of the Knights' pledge may also be used to expand research and patient-care facilities and to support new programs, such as developing a statewide network of oncologists working jointly to provide patient care and improve cancer screening. The remaining $2 million will support a group of research laboratories at the institute that the university plans to name the Linda Conant Laboratory Suite. Conant was a close friend of the Knights who died of breast cancer in 2008. She had been treated at the institute.

17. David H. Koch—$100 million to the City Center of Music and Drama. Koch, executive vice president of Koch Industries, an oil-and-gas refinery and chemicals company in Wichita, Kan., pledged $100 million to a joint capital campaign at the New York City Ballet and New York City Opera to raise money for the New York State Theater, which is home to both the ballet company and the opera company's New York performances.

The City Center of Music and Drama in New York oversees the management of the New York State Theater and will receive and administer the money. The donations, Koch said, must go toward refurbishing the theater and establishing an endowment for it. He stipulated that income from the endowment should be used to pay for the theater's future maintenance. Koch said he is donating the money because he loves the theater, and after attending performances there for the last 40 years, he has noticed that the interior of the building has become worn out. Koch has already paid $15 million. He said he plans to pay $10 million a year for the next eight years and $5 million the final year. He said he expected all the money to be paid by 2018.

17. Kenneth G. and Elaine A. Langone—$100 million to the New York University Langone Medical Center. Kenneth Langone co-founded the Home Depot retail chain and founded Invemed Associates, an investment-banking firm in New York. The Langones pledged $100 million to New York University's medical center, which the university named for the Langones. Kenneth Langone has served as chairman of the medical center's board of trustees since 1999. The couple pledged $100 million to the center that year, but did so anonymously. It wasn't until they made last year's pledge that they agreed to let the university announce their names, after medical center officials convinced them that it would encourage other philanthropists to donate money to the center. It worked. Last year the medical center raised a total of more than $506 million, including the Langones' pledge and $150 million from Helen L. Kimmel, No. 12 on the Slate 60.

Although Langone would not say how much of the two pledges has been paid, he said an "enormous" amount has been paid, and he and his wife plan to pay the remainder in the next several years. The couple said the medical center could use the money for any purpose. Medical-center officials plan to use the money to build a new hospital and will direct some of it toward efforts to revitalize and upgrade the medical center's four-block campus on the East Side of Manhattan. Langone earned his master's degree in business administration in 1960 at the university's Leonard N. Stern School of Business, where he serves as a board member.  

22. Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ—$94.8 million to the Ohio University Russ College of Engineering and Technology. The Russes founded Systems Research Laboratories, a Beavercreek, Ohio, engineering and technology research firm. Fritz Russ, who died in 2004 at 84, and his wife, Dolores, who died in 2008 at 86, bequeathed the bulk of their estate to Ohio University's Russ College of Engineering and Technology in Athens. Russ College officials said the bequest will go toward research in avionics, biomedical engineering, civil infrastructure, and energy and environment. The Russes stipulated in their will that a portion of the money must be used to endow professorships, scholarships, and leadership programs for students. Russ earned a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the university in 1942 and served on the university's board of trustees from 1981-90.

With a career that started at the Naval Research Laboratory, Russ helped build the world's first high-voltage, radio-frequency-generated power supply, which would later be used in television sets. In 1955, he and his wife started Systems Research Laboratories. Together they built the company's first facility themselves. The 1,200-square-foot concrete structure had such cost-savings features as an interior window between the two founders' offices, through which the couple would pass the company's lone telephone. With an eye always on thrift, Mr. Russ gave Mrs. Russ a birthday gift of asphalt tile for her office that first year. The company was responsible for such innovations as a device used by astronauts to monitor their blood pressure and radio that information back to Earth. It also developed special lasers, chemical-warfare shelters, and various types of artificial intelligence. The company's success and the couple's economizing paid off. They sold the company to Arvin Industries, an auto-parts manufacturer, in 1987 for $35.9 million. A division of the company called the Russ Research Center now provides laboratories and other types of research space for 13 companies, along with Russ College.

23. Frank Sr. and Jane Batten—$93 million to Culver Academies, Hollins University, and the Slover Library Foundation. Frank Batten is founder of Landmark Communications, now known as Landmark Media Enterprises in Virginia Beach, Va. He and his wife, Jane, pledged up to $70 million to Culver Academies, a complex of private schools and camps in Culver, Ind. The first part of the gift includes $20 million that has already been paid to create an endowment that will be used to support salaries and professional development of staff members at the secondary school. The second part of the gift is a commitment to match donations up to a cumulative total of $50 million to the school's endowment. Batten, who graduated from Culver in 1945, serves as a trustee emeritus of the Culver Educational Foundation.

The couple also gave $20 million to the Slover Library Foundation in Norfolk, Va., to help the city build a $50 million library, which will be named for Batten's uncle, Col. Samuel L. Slover. The Battens also gave $3 million to Hollins University in Roanoke, Va., to endow a leadership institute bearing the couple's name to support programs for women at the school. Batten's mother attended the university, as did Jane Batten. Batten received his bachelor's degree in economics in 1950 from the University of Virginia and his master's degree in business administration in 1952 from Harvard University. 

24. Jesse H. and Beulah C. Cox—$83.5 million to Indiana University and the Legacy Fund of Hamilton County. Jesse Cox started the J.H. Cox Manufacturing  Co., which supplied Venetian blinds to retailers such as Sears, Roebuck, and Co. He later bought a small company and started Aero Drapery & Blind. The Coxes later began farming nearly 1,500 acres in Indiana and buying and managing commercial rental property. Cox, who died in 2008 at 90, and his wife, Beulah, who died in 1999 at the age of 81, left $77 million to Indiana University and $6.5 million to the Legacy Fund of Hamilton County, in Carmel, an affiliate of the Central Indiana Community Foundation, in Indianapolis. The former is the largest gift the university has ever received and will be used to pay for scholarships for students with good grades who need financial assistance. The scholarships provide 75 percent of the total cost of attending either Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis or Indiana University-Bloomington. Cox stipulated that students receiving the scholarships work for the other 25 percent, preferably in a job that is associated with their major. The Bloomington campus receives two-thirds of the total bequest and matches that amount for student scholarships, and the Indianapolis campus receives one-third.  Jesse Cox died only 36 hours after hearing the news that the first class of students to receive his scholarship had graduated, says Curtis Simic, president emeritus of the Indiana University Foundation. "He got to see his dream come true, and then he passed away." The $6.5 million that the Coxes left to the Legacy Fund of Hamilton County is for the benefit of Coxhall Gardens. The couple had previously donated their home and surrounding 125 acres of land to the Hamilton County Parks and Recreation Department to create the gardens.

25. Henry R. and Marie-Josée Kravis—$75 million to the Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Foundation. Henry Kravis co-founded Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., a New York investment-banking firm. Marie-Josée Kravis is an economist and a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute, a think tank in Washington. The Kravises gave $75 million to their foundation, to go to Claremont McKenna College, Henrry Kravis' alma mater. He graduated in 1967 and has served on its board of trustees since 1987. The couple said the college could use the money for any purpose, and college officials have directed the money toward a new facility that will be finished in 2010. The building will house classrooms, five research institutes, and administrative offices.

26. Ronald O. Perelman—$63.5 million to the Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Stand Up to Cancer, the World Trade Center Memorial Fund, and Ford's Theatre. Perelman, 66, is chairman of MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings. He pledged $25 million to Weill Medical College in New York to support research, education, and patient care at the Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine. Cohen, who died in 2007 after battling cancer, and Perelman were married for nine years and had one child together. Although they divorced in 1994, he said she remained his closest friend. Perelman, who serves on the medical college's board of overseers, said he had made the gift in part to honor the memory of his former wife.

In addition, Perelman pledged $15 million to Stand Up to Cancer, which supports cancer research and efforts to advance treatment for cancer patients; $5 million to the World Trade Center Memorial Fund; and $2.5 million to Ford's Theatre. He also gave a total of $16 million to 581 nonprofit organizations, including Big Brothers Big Sisters in Philadelphia; the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Baltimore; the Rainforest Foundation U.S.; and other arts, education, Jewish, medical research, and women's-health groups.

27. Guy E. Beatty Jr.—$60 million to the College of Charleston. Beatty founded the Beatty Companies, which develop commercial real estate in McLean, Va., in 1967. The companies develop land for shopping centers and office parks, mainly in Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina. Beatty, who is retired, pledged at least $60 million to the College of Charleston in South Carolina as part of an estate trust. The college will receive $2 million per year for 30 years from the pledge—the largest it has ever received—after he dies. He designated $1 million per year for scholarships and $1 million for buildings and infrastructure. The college has not yet released any further plans for the pledge. Beatty is a member of its business school's board of governors and previously gave $2 million to create the Beatty Center, which houses the school. He has also established a scholarship fund that provides $75,000 per year to business students. His daughter graduated from the school in 1985, and a grandson graduated in 2006.

28. Malone III and Amy Mitchell—$57.2 million to Oklahoma State University. The Mitchells are the founders and former owners of SandRidge Energy, an oil-exploration and production company in Oklahoma City. The couple sold the company in late 2006 and is now involved in venture capital, energy, and agricultural businesses. They gave 1 million shares of SandRidge Energy stock, worth $57.2 million, to Oklahoma State University to create an entrepreneurship program over the next five years within the William S. Spears School of Business and also provide support for the university's athletics programs. The money will be split evenly between the business school and the athletics department. The gift for the business school designates $22 million for endowed professorships. It will create the Riata Center for Entrepreneurship, named for the former name of SandRidge Energy. The gift to the athletics department will provide endowed support to future athletics construction projects and scholarships. Both Mitchells are alumni of the university. Malone Mitchell, who was born in Stillwater, graduated with a bachelor's degree in agriculture in 1983. Amy Mitchell is a 1983 graduate of the school's College of Human Environmental Sciences.

29. Felix E. Martin Jr.—$56.6 million to the Community Foundation of Louisville, the McCallie School and the University of Kentucky. Martin was a public-relations executive at the Bell Telephone Co. and a private investor. Martin, who was 80 when he died in 2007, left the bulk of his estate to the Community Foundation of Louisville in Kentucky to establish the Felix E. Martin Jr. Foundation. He stipulated that the foundation's sole purpose would be to support educational, civic, and cultural needs in Muhlenberg County, Ky., where his family had lived since 1805. Officials at the community foundation and Martin's foundation have hired a research firm to poll Muhlenberg County residents about where support is most needed throughout the county. In addition, Martin bequeathed $2.8 million apiece to the McCallie School, a college-preparatory school for boys in Chattanooga, Tenn., and the University of Kentucky. Martin earmarked both donations to endow scholarships for students from Muhlenberg County. He also left $1 million to his church, Greenville United Methodist Church. Martin grew up in Greenville and graduated from the McCallie School in 1945. After high school, he joined the U.S. Maritime Service and served on a ship in the Mediterranean Sea. After World War II ended, he entered the University of Kentucky, but he left in 1950 when he was drafted into the Army to serve in the Korean War. He was honorably discharged from the Army in 1952 and finally returned to the university. He earned a bachelor's degree in commerce in 1954.

30. Paul G. Allen—$55.9 million to the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, the Experience Music Project, and the Science Fiction Museum. Allen, a co-founder of Microsoft and founder of Vulcan, an investment company in Seattle, gave $22.9 million to the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, which he founded in 2003. The money will support the institute's neuroscience and genomics research programs, including the Allen Brain Atlas projects, an effort to map gene activity in the mouse brain and the human brain. He also gave $22 million to the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation. The money will be used to support arts and culture organizations and social-service programs. Last year, the foundation awarded $11.8 million in grants across the country, including $1.6 million to the Technology Access Foundation in Seattle to establish a school that will promote academic achievement for low-income and minority youths; $600,000 to Aviation High School in Des Moines, Wash., for a mentorship and internship program; $300,000 to the Albertina Kerr Centers, in Portland, Ore., for programs serving child-welfare groups and the juvenile-justice system; and $300,000 to the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, in Ashland, for new productions. In addition, Allen gave $9.6 million to the Experience Music Project, a museum he created in 2000 that is dedicated to rock 'n' roll, and to the Science Fiction Museum, which he started in 2003. He also gave a total of $1.4 million to several nonprofit groups, including the Seattle Seahawks Charitable Foundation, which primarily supports youth programs.

31. Stewart A. and Lynda R. Resnick—$55.3 million to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Resnicks own and manage Roll International Corporation, a Los Angeles holding company for Paramount Farms, a tree-farming business; Fiji Water; POM Wonderful, a grower of pomegranates and manufacturer of pomegranate juice; and Teleflora, a service for ordering flowers by phone and online, among other companies. The couple has pledged $55 million to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Resnicks will pay $45 million over 10 years toward the museum's campaign to unify its campus and refurbish and expand its galleries. The museum will name a new building, designed by architect Renzo Piano, for the couple in honor of the gift. The Resnicks have also promised to donate at least $10 million in artwork as part of the pledge. They also gave $304,000 to the museum in 2008 to help it buy art, run fundraising events, and provide unrestricted support.

Lynda Resnick, who grew up in Philadelphia, opened her first business, an advertising agency, in California at age 19. Stewart Resnick grew up in New Jersey and also began his own business, a janitorial service, at a young age. The couple bought their first business together, Teleflora, in 1979. Lynda Resnick is a vice chairwoman of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art's board of trustees and chairwoman of its acquisitions and executive committees. She also serves on the executive board for the medical sciences at UCLA; is vice chairwoman of the board of directors for the Prostate Cancer Foundation in Santa Monica, Calif.; is a trustee of the Philadelphia Museum of Art; and is a trustee of the Milken Family Foundation, also in Santa Monica. Stewart Resnick is also a member of the executive board for the medical sciences at UCLA; the board of trustees of the J. Paul Getty Trust in Los Angeles; and the board of Conservation International in Arlington, Va.

32. Donald J. and Ruth Weber Goodman—$52.7 million to the Cleveland Foundation. Dr. Goodman was a retired dentist and private investor. Ruth Goodman inherited the estate of her father, Arthur Weber, who founded Triplex Screw Corporation in Cleveland. Dr. Goodman, who died in 2007 at 84, and Ruth Goodman, who died in 2008, at 70, left $52.7 million in a combination of stocks, mutual funds, bonds, and cash to the Donald J. and Ruth Weber Goodman Philanthropic Fund, an endowment they had established with the Cleveland Foundation in 2004. The fund supports research and education at Case Western Reserve University's school of medicine and University Hospitals Ireland Cancer Center. The fund also supports faculty and research for Case Western's school of dental medicine, medical programs on Ohio public-radio stations, and new equipment and patient care at the Ireland Cancer Center. Dr. Goodman became interested in giving money for medical research after he developed leukemia, which was diagnosed as terminal in 2000. Doctors told him he had only a few weeks to live, says Caprice Bragg, vice president for gift planning at the Cleveland Foundation, but he was treated at the Ireland center with Mylotarg, then an experimental drug, and lived for seven more years. Dr. Goodman received his dental degree from Case Western Reserve University in 1945. The Goodmans both grew up in Cleveland and most recently lived in Pepper Pike, a nearby suburb.

33. Jerome and Anne Fisher—$50 million to the University of Pennsylvania. Jerome Fisher is a co-founder and chairman emeritus of Nine West Group, which designs and markets women's shoes and accessories. The Fishers have pledged $50 million to Penn to build a biomedical-research center dedicated to the field of translational medicine, which emphasizes the rapid conversion of laboratory discoveries into medical treatments. The Anne and Jerome Fisher Translational Research Center, scheduled to open in 2010, will hold 400,000 square feet of research space. University officials hope to eventually recruit 1,000 scientists, researchers, and other staff members for the facility. The gift will also provide a professorship in hematology and oncology named in honor of the couple's daughter, Jodi Fisher.

Fisher received a bachelor's degree in economics from the university's Wharton School in 1953. The Fishers, who have grandchildren who are alumni of Penn, are longtime supporters of the university, having given more than $14 million before this gift. Jerome Fisher served on the Wharton School's undergraduate executive board and board of overseers from 1992-2004. He was a university trustee from 1996-2000 and has been a member of Penn Medicine's board of trustees since 2006. Anne Fisher served on the board of overseers for the graduate school of fine arts, now the school of design, from 1992 -2002. Both served as members of the College House advisory board from 2000-01.

34. Michael Moritz and Harriet Heyman—$50 million to the University of Oxford. Moritz is a partner at Sequoia Capital, a venture-capital firm in Menlo Park, Calif. Heyman is a writer.  The couple pledged $50 million to the University of Oxford, specifically for Christ Church College. Under the terms of the gift, Christ Church will transfer an additional $150 million of its endowment into the Oxford University Asset Management fund, which was established in 2007 to improve the management of the university's long-term investments. Christ Church's total stake in the investment pool will rise to more than $200 million. The gift from Moritz and Heyman will be added to the college's endowment. Income from the endowment will support faculty positions, maintain and restore buildings, and be used for student grants and scholarships. The gift will also be used as a match: One-eighth of the annual income will be released from the fund only when the same amount is donated by recent Christ Church alumni. Moritz is originally from Wales. He graduated from Oxford with an undergraduate degree in modern history in 1976.

35. Perot family—$50 million to the Museum of Nature & Science. The five children of H. Ross Perot and his wife, Margot, pledged $50 million to the Museum of Nature & Science in Dallas. The donors are Suzanne McGee, Nancy Mulford, Katherine Perot, Ross Perot Jr., and Carolyn Rathjen. The gift funds a new 150,000-square-foot museum that will provide exhibition space to house collections and offer hands-on activities. The new facility will be known as the Perot Museum of Nature & Science in honor of the donors' parents. Their father, H. Ross Perot, founded Electronic Data Systems, a technology company in Plano, Texas, that was purchased by General Motors in 1984, and Perot Systems, a technology company in Plano, Texas, of which he is chairman emeritus of the board. Ross Perot ran for president of the United States in 1992 and 1996. The gift is the largest in the museum's $155 million capital campaign, bringing the total amount raised so far to $106 million, and ensures that groundbreaking on the new facility will take place in late 2009. No information about the pledge's payment schedule was available.

36. Emily Rauh Pulitzer—$47.5 million to the Harvard Art Museum and the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts. Pulitzer is the founder of the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts, a former curator at the St. Louis Art Museum and at the Harvard Art Museum, and the widow of Joseph Pulitzer Jr., former editor and publisher of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Pulitzer, now in her mid-70s, gave $45 million, along with a collection of 31 pieces of art, to the Harvard Art Museum. While the museum declined to attach a value to the donated artwork, it is worth about four times the value of the cash gift, said Bradford Voigt, director of institutional advancement at the museum. Voigt said the gift is the largest in the museum's history. The art museum is undergoing a major renovation project, to which $40 million of Mrs. Pulitzer's gift will be committed. The remaining $5 million will endow the department of modern and contemporary art. Pulitzer has paid nearly half of the gift and will pay most of the balance over the next two to three years, Voigt said. A small portion will be bequeathed to the institution. Pulitzer and her late husband, who died at 80 in 1993, each had a decades-long involvement with Harvard and a serious passion for art. Joseph Pulitzer, who graduated from the university in 1936 with a bachelor's degree in fine art, gave both money and artwork to the institution over many years.

Emily Pulitzer grew up in Cincinnati and received a bachelor's degree in art history from Bryn Mawr College in 1955. She served as assistant curator of drawings at Harvard's Fogg Art Museum from 1957-64, earning a master's degree at Harvard during that time. She later took the job of curator at the St. Louis Art Museum. She married Pulitzer, a widower, in 1973.  She also gave $2.5 million to the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts, an institution in St. Louis that is named for her family. Pulitzer serves on the board of overseers of Harvard University and the board of trustees of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, as well as on the boards of the Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis; the Grand Center Arts and Entertainment District in St. Louis; and the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

37. Lorry I. Lokey—$46.7 million to the Stanford University Donor Advised Fund. Lokey, 81, founded Business Wire, a San Francisco company that distributes news releases. He sold the company to Berkshire Hathaway in 2006 for an undisclosed amount. He pledged $42 million to the Stanford University Donor Advised Fund for a stem-cell research center. Lokey also pledged $33 million to support the center in 2007. The center is scheduled to open in 2010 and will be named for Lokey, who graduated from Stanford in 1949 with a bachelor's degree in journalism. Lokey said in a press release that he decided to support stem-cell research after the Bush administration restricted federal support for it in 2001. He also donated real estate worth $4.5 million, and $200,000 in cash and securities, to the Lorry I. Lokey Supporting Foundation, in San Francisco.

38. Theodore and Vada Stanley—$45 million to the Stanley Family Foundation and the Stanley Medical Research Institute. Theodore Stanley is the founder of MBI, a Norwalk, Conn., company that develops and markets collectible items. The Stanleys gave $36.5 million to the Stanley Family Foundation, which they established in 1985 to support mental-health services, education, and the arts. The couple also donated $5 million to the Stanley Medical Research Institute to support research and treatment of mental illness, which touched their family in the 1980s when their son was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. They helped found the institute in 1989. In addition, the couple gave a total of $3.5 million to about 100 nonprofit groups throughout the country, including: A Glimmer of Hope Foundation in Austin, Texas; the Boys & Girls Clubs of America in Atlanta; the Fuller Center for Housing in Americus, Ga.; and the International Rescue Committee in New York.