Late-19th-Century Business Maps of San Francisco’s Chinatown, Used to Determine Immigration Status
Walking through San Francisco's Chinatown in 1894, immigration officer John Lynch recorded the nature of the small businesses lining the ethnic enclave's streets and alleys. The National Archives has digitized the maps Lynch and other immigration investigators used to track the fish vendors, tailors, and restaurants found along streets like Washington Alley, which is mapped below.
Illustrated Propaganda for Elementary-School Students in Mussolini’s Italy
American student Barbara Donahue (then Barbara Finlay) lived in Italy between August 1937 and March 1938, when she was 7 and 8 years old. She attended a Catholic school, the Istituto Vittoria Colonna, in Milan. There, she was issued these small soft-covered government-produced student notebooks, decorated with colorful, dramatic illustrations. (The Donahue family are long-time family friends; Barbara's son Bill showed me her collection of notebooks and allowed me to scan them.)
Interactive Map Lets You Track How 19th- and Early-20th-Century American Newspapers Covered Any Topic
This interactive map, put together by the Georgia Tech Research Institute and the University of Georgia's eHistory initiative, uses the Library of Congress' database of historical newspapers, Chronicling America, to track frequency of keywords in newspapers and visualize the results across time and space.
Timeline Lets You Browse Hundreds of Historical Documents From the Vault Blog
Something that’s always bothered me about the Vault has been the way posts can end up feeling unconnected to a bigger historical picture. Sure, I try as hard as I can to write about the way each document fits into its period of origin, but the Internet is a relentless decontextualizer. If you found this blog through one of its popular posts, like the medicinal plants map of the United States or the CIA’s guide to workplace sabotage, it’s unlikely that you were able to browse documents from the same time period that I’d written about in the past—unless you were killing a lot of time at work that day.
Wistful Memories of the Confederacy, 50 Years After the Civil War
These two very similar posters, copyrighted in Atlanta and published in Iowa around 1910, commemorate the Confederacy 50 years after its founding. Distributed as a promotional item by the First National Bank of Gainesville, Georgia, the first poster below incorporates portraits of Confederate leaders, a map, images of currency and memorials, and (on its reverse side) the lyrics to Confederate poems and songs.
A Colorful Late-19th-Century Map of Native American Languages
John Wesley Powell, explorer, geologist, and scientist, produced this map while he was the head of the Bureau of American Ethnology, as part of an 1890 Annual Report. According to Powell's description of the project, the map plotted "linguistic stocks of American Indians," as they were situated "at the time when the tribes composing them first became known to the European."
The Hundreds of Life Stories Found in Coroner’s Reports From the 19th-Century South
CSI:Dixie, a beautifully conceived and profoundly mournful new digital history site, holds 1,582 digitized coroner's reports from six counties in 19th-century South Carolina. You can search by keyword or read lists that organize inquest files by the act that killed the person (homicide; suicide; infanticide; accident natural causes), clicking through to individual cases that fit that description. Three "Chronicles" tell deeper stories of individual inquests. Historian Stephen Berry, who created the site, offers extensive commentary and context throughout.
A Treasure Trove of Awkward Early-20th-Century Infographics
This group of infographics comes from the Scientific American Reference Book of 1913, compiled by Albert A. Hopkins and A. Russell Bond, which is available to read on the Internet Archive. They're a delightful snapshot of the concerns of readers of the magazine a hundred years ago, as well as an interesting tour through infographic design strategies au courant at the time.
George Washington, Lifelong Mapmaker
George Washington studied surveying, practiced it on familiar lands owned by his family, and was appointed as official surveyor of Culpeper County, Virginia, by the young age of 17. The maps below, which date from different phases of Washington's lifelong involvement with surveying and cartography, are from the collection of the Library of Congress. "Throughout his life as a soldier, planter, businessman, land speculator, farmer, military officer, and president," writes the Library's Edward Redmond, "Washington relied on and benefitted from his knowledge of maps."
A 19th-Century Relief Map That Let Students Explore the Roman Empire by Touch
The tactile map, an innovation of the 19th century, allowed both blind and sighted students to feel their way across a given geography. Writing for the digital archive 19th-Century Disability: Cultures and Contexts, where I first saw this item, Leah Thomas notes that this L.R. Klemm map was made decades after the first tactile maps were printed in Europe and the United States. While the waterproof map could be used to teach students without sight, Klemm believed that relief maps like this one could also fruitfully engage sighted students through the sense of touch.