Beyond "12 Years a Slave": The Signatures of Hundreds Who Sued For Freedom

Historical Treasures, Oddities, And Delights
Oct. 17 2013 11:30 AM

Beyond "12 Years a Slave": The Signatures of Hundreds Who Sued For Freedom

The Vault is Slate's history blog. Like us on Facebook, follow us on Twitter @slatevault, and find us on Tumblr. Find out more about what this space is all about here.

This grid of tiny Xs is made up of the signatures of slaves who petitioned for their freedom in the courts of St. Louis during the time between Missouri’s statehood (1821) and the Dred Scott decision (1857). Some of these plaintiffs—like Solomon Northup, the historical figure whose story is the basis of the film 12 Years a Slave—were formerly free men who were victims of kidnapping. All of them showed great bravery in resisting their enslavement publicly.

University of Iowa law professor Lea VanderVelde worked with a set of around 300 antebellum civil cases from the courts in St. Louis while writing her forthcoming book, Redemption Songs: Courtroom Stories of Slavery. Some petitions that VanderVelde reviewed based the slaves’ claim to freedom on their previous status, while others argued that they had resided in a free state (usually Illinois) with their masters and were therefore legally free.


VanderVelde thinks that enslaved people in St. Louis, particularly women who worked as laundresses alongside free black counterparts, probably heard about the option to sue for freedom through word of mouth. In this urban setting, slaves had a certain degree of mobility, conferred so that they could pursue their masters’ errands. Often, VanderVelde says, they would slip away to the courthouse or to a justice of the peace to file.

You might expect that these petitioners would have little luck in a white court system operating in a slave state. But the plaintiffs were assigned attorneys if they couldn’t afford their own—an unusual practice at the time—and a fair number succeeded in convincing the all-white juries that the rule of law demanded a favorable verdict. (VanderVelde estimates that around a third of the cases that she examined ended in success for the petitioners.)

In one such story, Lydia Titus, a free resident of Illinois, sued on behalf of her family. Titus was asleep at her homestead with her six grown children when three white men arrived in the middle of the night, claimed ownership over the younger Tituses, and took them to St. Louis. Titus—“a resourceful woman,” VanderVelde says—guessed at their destination, followed the group to St. Louis, and helped them file for their freedom. She eventually won, but three of her children died while in the limbo of imprisonment.

VanderVelde notes that for many of these signatories, the signing of this petition may have been the first occasion in their lives that they'd been asked to use a pen.

Image courtesy Lea VanderVelde.

Clarification, Monday, October 21, 2:31 PM: The image below is of 51 signatures, some of which are repeated. Altogether, VanderVelde collected around 170 images of "x" signatures; in the remaining cases, the signature page was lost, or the plaintiff's lawyer signed in place of their client.



Don’t Worry, Obama Isn’t Sending U.S. Troops to Fight ISIS

But the next president might. 

The Extraordinary Amicus Brief That Attempts to Explain the Wu-Tang Clan to the Supreme Court Justices

Amazon Is Officially a Gadget Company. Here Are Its Six New Devices.

The Human Need to Find Connections in Everything

It’s the source of creativity and delusions. It can harm us more than it helps us.

How Much Should You Loathe NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell?

Here are the facts.

Altered State

The Plight of the Pre-Legalization Marijuana Offender

What should happen to weed users and dealers busted before the stuff was legal?

Surprise! The Women Hired to Fix the NFL Think the NFL Is Just Great.

You Shouldn’t Spank Anyone but Your Consensual Sex Partner

Sept. 17 2014 5:10 PM The Most Awkward Scenario in Which a Man Can Hold a Door for a Woman
  News & Politics
Altered State
Sept. 17 2014 11:51 PM The Plight of the Pre-Legalization Marijuana Offender What should happen to weed users and dealers busted before the stuff was legal?
Business Insider
Sept. 17 2014 1:36 PM Nate Silver Versus Princeton Professor: Who Has the Right Models?
Dear Prudence
Sept. 18 2014 6:00 AM All Shook Up My 11-year-old has been exploring herself with my “back massager.” Should I stop her?
  Double X
The XX Factor
Sept. 17 2014 6:14 PM Today in Gender Gaps: Biking
  Slate Plus
Slate Fare
Sept. 17 2014 9:37 AM Is Slate Too Liberal?  A members-only open thread.
Brow Beat
Sept. 17 2014 8:25 PM A New Song and Music Video From Angel Olsen, Indie’s Next Big Thing
Future Tense
Sept. 17 2014 9:00 PM Amazon Is Now a Gadget Company
  Health & Science
Bad Astronomy
Sept. 18 2014 7:30 AM Red and Green Ghosts Haunt the Stormy Night
Sports Nut
Sept. 17 2014 3:51 PM NFL Jerk Watch: Roger Goodell How much should you loathe the pro football commissioner?