The Music Industry Was Never The Record-Manufacturing Industry

A blog about business and economics.
Nov. 15 2012 10:55 AM

The Music Industry Was Never The Record-Manufacturing Industry

A very interesting Damon Krukowski piece about how nobody's making money off Spotify and Pandora which pay artists peanuts and still can't turn a profit is unfortunately marred by a very naive account of what the Good Old Days of the industry looked like:

When I started making records, the model of economic exchange was exceedingly simple: make something, price it for more than it costs to manufacture, and sell it if you can. It was industrial capitalism, on a 7" scale. The model now seems closer to financial speculation. Pandora and Spotify are not selling goods; they are selling access, a piece of the action. Sign on, and we'll all benefit.
Advertisement

That makes it sound like the music industry was the record manufacturing industry. That's like confusing the role of a movie studio with the role of Eastman Kodak or Fujifilm in the manufacture of 35 mm film. A band selling a record isn't really selling goods either, it's selling intellectual property. If anyone who owned a record factory was allowed to produce a copy of whichever album he wanted, then obviously bands wouldn't be able to make any money selling records. They'd have to make music as a loss leader for touring or t-shirts or just do it for fun. 

Which is basically the exact same issue that you have with the digital streaming services. The way this got resolved in the factory setting is that you'd have exlusive deals. Only one record company was allowed to produce copies of your record. That creates monopoly pricing power. What we have on Internet streaming is lots of competition. The stuff you can hear on Pandora is largely what you can hear on Spotify or Rdio or whatever else. The upshot is exactly what you'd expect from a competitive market—very little profit for producers. On the flipside, you get huge returns to consumers (I'm an Rdio user and it's both amazing and amazingly cheap) and big profits for the people who are in an uncompetitive market—Comcast, Verizon, AT&T, and the other firms that own the Internet pipes.

Matthew Yglesias is the executive editor of Vox and author of The Rent Is Too Damn High.

TODAY IN SLATE

Sports Nut

Grandmaster Clash

One of the most amazing feats in chess history just happened, and no one noticed.

The Extraordinary Amicus Brief That Attempts to Explain the Wu-Tang Clan to the Supreme Court Justices

Amazon Is Officially a Gadget Company. Here Are Its Six New Devices.

Uh-Oh. The World’s Oceans Have Broken Their All-Time Heat Record.

The NFL Explains How It Sees “the Role of the Female”

Future Tense

Amazon Is Now a Gadget Company

Food

How to Order Chinese Food

First, stop thinking of it as “Chinese food.”

The NFL Should Lose Its Tax-Exempt Status, Which It Never Should Have Had Anyway

The Country Where Women Aren’t Allowed to Work Once They’re 36 Weeks’ Pregnant

The XX Factor
Sept. 18 2014 11:40 AM The Country Where Women Aren’t Allowed to Work Once They’re 36 Weeks’ Pregnant
  News & Politics
Weigel
Sept. 18 2014 8:20 PM A Clever Attempt at Explaining Away a Vote Against the Farm Bill
  Business
Moneybox
Sept. 18 2014 6:02 PM A Chinese Company Just Announced the Biggest IPO in U.S. History
  Life
Outward
Sept. 18 2014 4:15 PM Reactions to a Sketch of Chelsea Manning Reveal Transmisogyny
  Double X
Doublex
Sept. 18 2014 8:07 PM Crying Rape False rape accusations exist, and they are a serious problem.
  Slate Plus
Behind the Scenes
Sept. 18 2014 1:23 PM “It’s Not Every Day That You Can Beat the World Champion” An exclusive interview with chess grandmaster Fabiano Caruana.
  Arts
Brow Beat
Sept. 18 2014 4:33 PM The Top 5 Dadsplaining Moments From The Cosby Show
  Technology
Future Tense
Sept. 18 2014 6:48 PM By 2100 the World's Population Could Be 11 Billion
  Health & Science
Science
Sept. 18 2014 3:35 PM Do People Still Die of Rabies? And how do you know if an animal is rabid?
  Sports
Sports Nut
Sept. 18 2014 11:42 AM Grandmaster Clash One of the most amazing feats in chess history just happened, and no one noticed.