What does a star on the edge of death look like? Perhaps not what you think:
This series of images [as usual, click to embiggen], from the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, will take some 'splainin. Hang on.
A supernova -- an exploding star -- is among the brightest single objects in the known Universe. A supernova can release as much energy in a single second as the Sun will in a thousand years.
Most people think of supernovae as massive stars exploding at the end of their lives, but there is another kind. When the Sun finally dies in a few billion more years, it will shed most of the material making up its outer layers, revealing the white-hot, dense core. This superhot ball will have half the mass of the Sun in it, but only be the size of the Earth. We call such a thing a white dwarf.
If a white dwarf orbits a normal star like the Sun, it can draw material off. This matter piles up on the surface and can eventually detonate like a stellar thermonuclear bomb. We call these Type Ia supernovae.
The thing is, massive stars are bright, so we can see them a long way off. We know of many stars in our galaxy that can blow that way (though all too far away to hurt us). But a Type Ia progenitor is faint, and hard to spot. Usually, the first notice we get of one is when it explodes, and we see the sudden and vast increase in light in a distant galaxy.
But astronomers have spotted a potential Type Ia supernova in our own galaxy, a ticking time bomb about 25,000 light years away. Called V445 Puppis, in November 2000 it underwent an explosive event: not a supernova, but a regular nova, the detonation of small (in cosmic terms) amount of material. Still, it ejected a lot of matter -- several times the mass of the entire Earth -- at very high speed, about 24 million kilometers per hour (14 million mph). That would reach from the Earth to the Moon in one minute flat. Over the course of several years, astronomers have taken images of the expanding debris, and the change -- seen in the picture above -- is dramatic, lovely, and terrifying.
The debris did not expand spherically because the two stars are in a tight orbit, circling each other rapidly. The matter drawn off the normal star forms a thick disk around the white dwarf. When the material on the surface exploded, it couldn't go through the disk, so it went up and down, above and below the disk. Over time it forms what's called a bipolar structure, because it comes out of the poles of the star. We see lots of similar bipolar objects, but not usually in a system that's about to go bye-bye.
Tellingly, there is no detectable hydrogen in the system. The surface of the white dwarf appears to be mostly helium, and the normal star looks to be dumping only helium on the white dwarf. Type Ia supernovae are hydrogen poor, even lacking it completely, so that fits.
Also, the mass of the white dwarf in V445 Puppis is on the thin hairy edge of the maximum it can be before it blows. When a white dwarf reaches 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, it goes kablooie (I had to calculate this as a homework problem in grad school). V445's mass? 1.35 times that of the Sun.
So when will the system go off? Hard to say. It may not be for
thousands millions of years. At that distance, it will be very bright in the sky, brighter than Venus. It won't hurt us; it's way too far away to to do that. But a nearby supernova of this type would be a huge boon to astronomy! It's this flavor of supernova we use to measure the expansion of the Universe (since they are so bright they can be seen very far away, and tend to blow up with the same brightness every time).
It's a little funny to think that the death of a star so many quadrillions of kilometers away can actually be a benefit to us. But remember, the calcium in our bones and iron in our blood came from supernovae like the one V445 Puppis will eventually become, so not only do we learn more about the Universe from them, we owe our very existence to them as well.