Bad Astronomy
The entire universe in blog form

May 21 2015 12:00 PM


I’ve been listening to electronica music for a long time (like, a really long time; as in I have Isao Tomita albums), and it’s interesting to me that variations of it are still popular. I can’t keep up with kids these days (STAY OFF MY ELECTRONS), so when a publicist sent me a note about Jamie XX, well, I’d never heard of him.

But she said the video for his new song “Gosh” has cool planetary visuals, so I figured what the heck. I clicked the link, and I have to admit: Yeah, the video has stunning visuals. It starts slow, so give it a chance.


I have to admit to chuckling when the rotating arm of the spaceship swings into view fully a minute into the video, after the very long approach sequence to Mars. That was well done. And the parts with spaceships and space stations set against the planet’s limb are really beautiful. Not to mention looking down on the dunes, craters, and other landscapes. The bits at the end with water-filled craters are really, really nice, jumping into the future after the planet is terraformed. That was pretty cool.

The music isn’t exactly my cup of tea, but after listening to it a couple of times it grew on me. I have pretty eclectic taste (I’ll listen to the Captain America 2 soundtrack then ABBA then Shostakovich all without a break), but this was still something of a stretch. But I do kinda like it.

And I like that the video is slow, languid, letting you linger over each scene. It’s nice to know that some people making visual art still appreciate simple beauty and give you a chance to soak it in.

And who knows? What’s art today may very well be fact in a century or two. That’s the point.

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May 21 2015 7:00 AM

The Cliffs of Churyumov-Gerasimenko

The Rosetta spacecraft hasn’t been in the news much lately, but wow, is it the gift that keeps on giving. Check out this magnificent view of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, looking past the Seth region on the big lobe to the towering Hathor cliffs on the small one:

Oh, my.


67P is a double-lobed beast, a 4-kilometer-long cosmic rubber ducky. It’s not clear why it (and so many other comets and asteroids) have this bowling pin or dumbbell shape; maybe it’s from two objects colliding slowly and sticking together, or one bigger object slowly eroding away as ice inside the comet gets heated to a gas by sunlight and vents into space.

Those cliffs are a clue, but what they’re telling us isn’t clear. They reach 900 meters high and are striated with linear features, looking very much like the comet has been cleaved right there.

That view is strengthened, perhaps unfairly, when you look at the comet in context. This mosaic shows 67P taken at a different time, but viewed from almost the exact same angle, and the lower left quadrant shows the same part of the comet as seen above:

When you see the whole thing, it looks like it was a snack for Galactus.

Photo by ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM (CC BY-SA IGO 3.0)

It really looks like it has a bite taken out of it! It’s not hard to imagine this started off as a more elongated, somewhat cylindrical object, and that over the eons a vent in the side kept getting bigger and bigger, eating away into the body of the comet.

The same as the top image, but enhanced to show the gas venting away.

Photo by ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM (CC BY-SA IGO 3.0)

Interestingly, you can see ice doing just that from Seth; if you brighten the top image a bit and drop the contrast, the streams of gas flowing away can be clearly seen.

But all this could be coincidence; the comet is a bizarre, alien landscape, and interpretation is difficult. Our sense of what can happen there may be biased by our more terrestrial experience, and we have to be careful to remember: This is in space, has little gravity, is composed of loosely conglomerated gravel and ice, and is sculpted by escaping gas and the rare impact rather than wind and sea. It’s easy to follow the garden path of reason to a completely wrong conclusion here.

But it’s fun to think about, isn’t it?

May 20 2015 12:01 PM

Get Thing Explainer

A great drawing person has made a book talking about cool stuff using only the ten hundred most used words. He is a friend of mine and very funny and brain-good, and his drawing stuff is a lot of fun to look at. Hundreds of hundreds of hundreds of people love what he does, and I do too. You should buy his new book by touching these red words.

Here is a picture of the cover of his new book:

Thing Explainer
Book cover by drawing-stuff guy.

Photo by Randal Munroe


And here is a picture of one of the drawing things he made about a car that looks at things on the Red World:

red world car
Red World car.

Drawing by Randall Munroe

Touch these words to make the picture bigger and easier to see.

If you don't understand what I am writing here and why I am doing it this way then you should touch these red words to find out more. My friend has more stuff about his book and when you read it you will understand.

You can order the book early and then get it when it comes out near the end of the year. I really really think you should.

May 20 2015 7:00 AM

Rainbow Tornado

Last year, I thought myself pretty lucky to catch a lightning bolt zapping across a rainbow while I was taking video of it.

But that was nothing compared with what some storm chasers saw near Eads, Colorado, on May 9, 2015: a tornado forming across a rainbow!



This was taken around 4:30 p.m. The Sun was about still halfway up the sky, putting the top edge of the rainbow just over the horizon. The raindrops forming the rainbow were between the storm chasers and the tornado, so technically the rainbow is in the foreground. Watching the video gives the illusion the rainbow is behind the tornado to me … but that is an illusion.

This tornado (and another nearby) reportedly didn’t do any damage or cause any injuries, but there were some in Texas spawned by the same massive system that did. I’ve never seen a tornado, nor do I feel the overwhelming need to. It’s rare to get them just where I live in Colorado, but towns nearby get their share. I’m glad we’re getting so much rain here this spring (especially given that Colorado supplies so much water to regions west of us that so desperately need it), but I also hope we don’t get the dangerous conditions that so often occur with it in this area … even if it sometimes gives us a glimpse of rare beauty.

Tip o' the storm cellar door to Geekologie.

May 19 2015 11:58 AM

Sen: Lunar Cartography

The United States Geological Survey just released two incredible and incredibly beautiful maps of the Moon, made using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. They are highly detailed and quite lovingly produced. 

I wrote about them for my twice-monthly column at (subscription required). The USGS site says they will be available as prints, but they're not online to order just yet. Still, the PDFs are very nice and, I'd think, very handy. If it ever stops raining here in Colorado, I'd like to compare them to the view through the eyepiece!


Correction, May 19, 2015, at 21:00 UTC: In the picture caption, I misidentified the mare as a basin.

May 19 2015 7:00 AM

Tripping the Light: Fantastic!

Update, May 20, 2015 at 15:15 UTC: The Atlas V rocket launch went well, taking to the skies just after 15:00 UTC. 

N.B. Scroll to the bottom for launch info.


On Wednesday, if all goes well, the Planetary Society will test a new technology that could open up a new way to explore the solar system. On board a United Launch Alliance Atlas V is a tiny cubesat, a parallelepiped just 10 x 10 x 30 centimeters in size—roughly the same size as a loaf of sandwich bread.

Packed into that tiny enclosure is a prototype called LightSail, a spacecraft that carries no fuel. Instead, it will use sunlight to propel it.

Light of any kind can exert pressure, called radiation pressure, when it interacts with matter. The amount is incredibly small, but it’s there. And if you’re out in space, where sunlight is eternal and there’s no atmosphere to counteract it, that pressure exerts a teeny force that can be used to accelerate a probe.

To be useful, you need a probe that has very little mass (to reduce overcoming its own inertia) but a lot of surface area, to catch as much sunlight as possible. This naturally leads to the idea of a light sail, a huge but very thin sail made of Mylar (4.5 microns thick; a human hair is about 20 times thicker). Attach this to a small satellite and you have yourself a space probe.

light sail
A full-size model of LightSail held by Planetary Society CEO Bill Nye.

Photo by the Planetary Society

To be sure, the acceleration is small, and it takes a while to build up speed, but that acceleration can be applied over long periods of time. Months. Interplanetary speeds are achievable this way!

This test is sponsored by the Planetary Society, whose purpose for existence is to “Empower the world's citizens to advance space science and exploration.” They do a lot of great work educating the public and advocating for space exploration, including funding actual projects.

LightSail is one of them. The launch Wednesday is to test a prototype of this technology and show that it can be deployed—it won’t be up high enough in orbit to overcome the very tiny but persistent drag caused by the very thin atmosphere. But if this goes as planned, the next step will be to build the full-fledged LightSail demonstration craft itself in 2016.

Here, let Bill Nye, CEO of the Planetary Society, explain:

This is amazing stuff, right out of science fiction … but it’s fact. By all accounts, this should work. The prototype should go a long way toward proving that.

As for the next step, the Planetary Society needs your help. It’s raised most of the funds needed to build the full-up LightSail for next year, but they’re looking for donations from the public to complete it. They’ve set up a Kickstarter for it that blew through the $200,000 initial goal pretty quickly, but the more the merrier. If you’ve got a few extra bucks lying around, you could do worse than help a group of really good folks try to create a new way to explore the solar system.

ULA will webcast the launch of the LightSail prototype live. The exact time of the launch window has not yet been announced, but the launch is scheduled between 14:45 to 18:45 UTC (10:45–2:45 p.m. Eastern time). You can keep up with the latest news and articles about the LightSail project at the Planetary Society, too.

May 18 2015 1:22 PM

BA Video: How Likely Are We to Die From an Asteroid Impact?

I guess today is Debunk Monday.

This morning I wrote about why a planetary alignment can’t cause earthquakes. In it I also mention that every time an asteroid passes Earth there are a bunch of breathless articles implying (or outright stating) that scientists are worried it will cause a mass extinction.


The vast majority of these articles are, to be technical, what comes out of the south end of a north-facing bull.

However, the threat of an asteroid impact causing harm is quite real, as I’ve written about many times. It’s a cause of concern among scientists, but translating that into realistic action by the public can be tricky.

For example, what are the odds that you’ll die in an asteroid impact? It turns out the chance is extremely low, but maybe higher than you might think. And that’s what’s covered in this week’s Bad Astronomy video:

To put it in even more understandable terms: Asteroid impacts are something I’m concerned about, but not something I’m worried about. I think about them, and work toward getting people to understand them, but they don’t keep me awake at night in terror, sweating and staring at the ceiling.

The good news, too, is that they are a threat we can do something about.  

May 18 2015 7:00 AM

No, a Planetary Alignment on May 28 Won’t Cause an Earthquake

Sigh. This again?

I’m seeing some buzz on social media that a planetary alignment on May 28 will cause a huge magnitude 9.8 earthquake in California.


Let me be clear: No, it won’t. It can’t. Worse, there’s not even really an alignment on that date, at least not with the Earth. It’s all baloney.

This all stems from a video by someone who I believe is sincere but also profoundly wrong on essentially every level. It’s been picked up by various credulous places online, then spread around by people who haven’t been properly skeptical about it.

While this story hasn’t gone as viral as the usual astronomically impaired tabloid doomsday BS, it’s popular enough to debunk and hopefully can serve as a template for future such claims of doom and gloom that are actually smoke and mirrors.

First, here’s the video. It’s from YouTuber Ditrianum Media.

There’s a whole lot of nonsense in there that I won’t even bother with, including claims of spirits and (seriously) Nostradamus.

But then the narrator starts talking about alignments. Several things struck me while watching this.

First, there is simply no way an alignment of planets can cause an earthquake on Earth. It’s literally impossible. I’ve done the math on this before; the maximum combined gravity of all the planets under ideal conditions is still far less than the gravitational influence of the Moon on the Earth, and the Moon at very best has an extremely weak influence on earthquakes.

To put a number on it, because the Moon is so close to us its gravitational pull is 50 times stronger than all the planets in the solar system combined. Remember too that the Moon orbits the Earth on an ellipse, so it gets closer and farther from us every two weeks. The change in its gravity over that time is still more than all the planets combined, yet we don’t see catastrophic earthquakes twice a month, let alone aligning with the Moon’s phases or physical location in its orbit.

So right away, we’re done.

I’ll note that in the video the narrator talks about the planets being “energized,” but doesn’t talk about what this truly means … but it doesn’t matter, because it’s meaningless. It’s the usual sort of New Age word salad when they talk about “energy”; they never define what that truly means (unlike in science where it has a strict definition) so it means everything and nothing.

Also, if you watch the video, like for example at 7:27 and 8:11, these “alignments” don’t even align with the Earth! One is just two planets that appear to line up with the Sun when the Earth is far off to the side, and in another they actually form a perpendicular line with the Earth. This is beyond silly; it doesn’t even make any sense.

Jupiter Pluto
Still going with nope.

Photo by NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute; NASA,ESA, and M. Buie (Southwest Research Institute); NASA; Phil Plait

At 8:40 he shows another “alignment” that apparently goes between the Earth and Moon … but note that the Moon’s distance to Earth isn’t shown to scale! The sizes of the planets and Moon aren’t to scale either. Look at the width of the Earth’s orbit in the display; that’s 300 million kilometers in real distance. The Moon’s distance from Earth is about 380,000 km, or a bit more than 0.1 percent of the size of Earth’s orbit.

To scale, the Earth and Moon would be less than a pixel apart on his display! Now imagine how small the Earth itself would be on that scale.

That “alignment” doesn’t come anywhere near splitting the two. I’m not sure I’d take doomsday advice from someone who doesn’t seem to understand the software being used to predict it.

Again, I’m sure the narrator is sincere and honestly wants to help people and warn them of an event he thinks may be real. This puts him a comfortable step up over the various and repulsive scam artists you can find all over the Web.

But it doesn’t make him within a glancing blow of reality. Alignments of the planets have no effect on us at all. They can’t make you float, they don’t cause earthquakes (the “supermoon” doesn’t either), and don’t even get me started about astrology.

There is something very human about being scared of the unknown, and when we don’t understand something, it’s all too easy to supply any number of threatening boogeymen to stand in the nebulous shadows.

Understanding reality makes a lot of those boogeymen evaporate. Poof. This is absolutely one of those times.

And yes, understanding reality also introduces us to real things that are scary. But there’s the beauty of science: We can separate the real things that scare us from the things that shouldn’t. If something isn’t real, you don’t have to worry about it. You can focus instead on the circumstances you can affect.

I think that many people who turn to pseudo- (and outright anti-) science may do so because they feel that things are out of their control. That’s too bad, because—even though it may not seem like it at first—when you begin down the path of studying science, of becoming a critical thinker, these tools actually help you be more in control of your life, not less.

Take control. Think critically. And that goes doubly so when you’re reading stuff on social media.

May 17 2015 7:30 AM

Dance of the Noctilucent Clouds

I know I just posted a time-lapse animation of aurorae, and the time lapse below also has aurorae in it, but—and this is a big but—it has something I’ve only seen very rarely: Animation showing the movement of eerie and beautiful noctilucent clouds!

The noctilucent clouds are in the first 40 seconds of the video. These are very high clouds, formed from extremely fine grain ice crystals about 75–80 kilometers in altitude. They can only be seen just after sunset or before sunrise, when the Sun is below the horizon but still able to illuminate the clouds. They’re not terribly well understood, but some studies indicate they appear to be more common recently, possibly inked with global warming (see Related Posts, below).


The rest of the video is quite lovely too, featuring aurorae, thunderstorms, and just the always-lovely movement of stars overhead. I have to laugh: I get exposed to more music that I’d never have otherwise heard watching these kinds of videos. I like the accompanying soundtrack to this video, and in fact it’s cool how the music stutters a bit, and the photographer, Tadas Janusonis, synched that up with the lightning bolts. I like it when the music matches the cadence of the video.

Related Posts:

Noctilucent clouds:

Videos by Tadas Janusonis:

May 16 2015 7:30 AM

What If Climate Change Is Real?

Katharine Hayhoe is one of my favorite climate scientists. There are a lot of reasons for this, but it all boils down to her being a science evangelist, and I do mean that literally: She’s an evangelical Christian who specifically talks to other religious folks about climate change, an obviously key demographic.

One of the problems with communicating the urgency about the climate is the distraction factor: People (deniers) arguing over minor details as a way of changing the focus from the reality of the bigger picture.


That’s why I’m glad to see Hayhoe gave a TEDx talk at Texas Tech University (where she is a professor) where she reviews the very basic understanding we have of global warming and why it’s causing our climate to change. If you find yourself struggling over the root causes, this is a great place to start.

And when you’re done watching, head over to Skeptical Science to get more info on the points she mentioned, as well as many, many others. You’ll find the science there, as well as debunkings of denial talking points.

After that, hopefully you’ll understand why so many of us are so concerned over this, and so willing to spend so much time fighting those who seem hellbent on making sure our planet warms up even more.