When Facebook filed for its initial public offering in February, Mark Zuckerberg wrote a frank letter to potential investors in the firm. “Facebook was not originally created to be a company,” he began. “It was built to accomplish a social mission—to make the world more open and connected.” The founder went on to say that while making money was important to Facebook, raking in cash was not its primary goal. “Simply put: we don’t build services to make money; we make money to build better services.”
The letter would be amazing if it were written by any other CEO in any other industry. After all, the point of an IPO is to ask Wall Street for money. Telling investors that you want their dough while insisting you don’t care about money is a bit like panhandling for change but admitting you’re going to blow it all on beer. In the tech industry, though, Zuckerberg’s tone was nothing out of the ordinary. His letter bears a resemblance to the note that Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin wrote to investors in 2004. In that note, Google warned Wall Street that though the search company’s shares were for sale, its mission was not. “Google is not a conventional company,” the pair warned. “We do not intend to become one.”
Don’t buy what any of these guys are selling. Eight years after its IPO, Google is still quirky, still sometimes surprising, and still wildly successful, but it is not at all unconventional. Just like any other company, Google has been swayed by pressure from investors to do things that once seemed unlikely—buying a phone company, for instance, or starting a social network. By many accounts, Mark Zuckerberg came kicking and screaming to Wall Street. He had no reason to take more cash from investors—Facebook is highly profitable as a private company—and he worried that his firm would be changed by Wall Street. That’s a legitimate concern, and he’s not the only one who should be concerned. You, humble user of Facebook, should be worried, too.
Facebook.com won’t look any different in the minutes after Zuck rings the opening bell this week. But over time, inevitably, and perhaps even against Zuckerberg’s better judgment, the site will be tweaked to do better by shareholders. How? For starters, expect more ads. Lots and lots of ads, everywhere in all shapes and sizes, and then even more still.
At the moment, Facebook’s ads are tame. If you access the site on a PC, the ads mainly pop up on the sidebar of the page, and I bet you almost never look at them. On mobile devices, meanwhile, Facebook has long been blissfully ad-free. But now that’s changing. In recent months, Facebook has added more ad units to the News Feed—right in the center of the page, with all the important stuff—on both PCs and mobile devices. Facebook claims these ads aren’t intrusive because they are “social.” They appear in your stream because they’re relevant to you based on your interests and your friends’ interests. For instance, if Slate decides that it wants to spend some money to promote my columns, Slate’s Facebook page could post one of my stories and pay Facebook to “promote” the post to all its followers. If you’ve previously Liked Slate, you’d see the post with my story in your feed.
Would this annoy you? Probably not, if these sorts of ads showed up every now and then. When it unveiled its “Reach Generator” in February—the advertising product that increases how often a specific spot is seen—Facebook pointed out that in tests with Ben & Jerry’s, the ads turned out to be a huge hit. Ben & Jerry’s ads were seen by 98 percent of its fans, people would Like and comment on many of them, and the ads seemed to push people to go out and buy more ice cream, even in the middle of winter. Ben & Jerry’s marketing department estimated that the ads delivered a three-to-one return on investment—that is, for every dollar the company spent on Facebook ads, they saw $3 in sales.