At the turn of the century, Microsoft vanquished Netscape in the browser wars. For a while, that victory looked permanent. The battle had been ugly: A federal court found that Microsoft illegally used its Windows monopoly to expand Internet Explorer's market share; Netscape never recovered from its loss. For most computer users, though, the browser wars were sublime: The Web browser was invented in 1992, and within five years, with hundreds of developers at both Microsoft and Netscape pumping out code, browsers became fast, stable, and capable of some very neat tricks.
These days, Web designers boast about all they can do with AJAX, the set of technologies that allow Web sites to emulate desktop-app behavior like drag-and-drop (think Google Maps or Yahoo Mail). AJAX runs on code that was created by Microsoft and Netscape as competitive weapons during the browser wars. Yes, today's glorious Web was made possible by yesterday's bruising business confrontation. All of us should rejoice, then, at the dawn of Browser War II.
On Tuesday, Google released a Web browser called Chrome. This new piece of software enters a crowded field of browsers looking for your love. Microsoft will soon offer the final revision of Internet Explorer 8, which is currently in beta release. (Both Chrome and IE 8 run only on Windows, though Google says it's creating versions for other platforms.) In June, Mozilla put out Version 3 of its popular open-source, cross-platform Firefox browser, and Version 3.1 is available in alpha *. The Norwegian software company Opera also recently released its latest eponymous, innovative, cult-hit browser. And Apple is now working on Version 4 of Safari for Mac and Windows.
All this competition is great news, because the world desperately needs a better Web browser. For at least four years, Firefox has been the gold standard among techies; I've been using it as my primary browser for at least that long. For a while, I loved it. I appreciated its smart, clean user interface, its tabs and keyboard shortcuts, and most of all—Firefox's killer feature—its ability to run a smorgasbord of useful third-party add-ons. But Firefox is hobbled by a couple of major flaws. It hogs system resources: Use it for a while, and it eats up huge swaths of your computer's memory, eventually becoming as slow as the Web browser on your iPhone. Firefox is also prone to crashing: Load up an errant Web page, and you risk bringing the program to a halt. (This problem makes session-recovery add-ons like Tab Mix Plus essential. *)
Admittedly, I'm not an ordinary Web user—I use my browser as a research tool, mail app, calendar, media player, and a tabbed to-do list. At any point during the day, I've got three or four browser windows open, each with 20 to 30 Web pages running in tabs. I understand that this bespeaks a kind of insanity, but with Web sites growing ever more useful and Web users growing ever more addicted, it's the sort of insanity that afflicts an increasing number people.
The wonderful thing about Google's new browser, then, is that it's been built with the singular purpose of handling a hefty workload. While I'm not yet ready to switch to Chrome as my permanent browser—it's got some odd user interface quirks, lacks a few useful features, and doesn't have Firefox's hordes of plug-ins—I've found it to be delightfully fast and stable. So far, it's run everything that I've thrown at it without bringing my computer to a halt. For that alone, I think Google's on to something.
If you're into comics about computer code, the 38-page book Google commissioned to unveil Chrome—illustrated by cartoonist Scott McCloud—does a fine job explaining what's new here. The gist is that most Web browsers do a lot of "single-threaded" work: Much of the processing is controlled by a few subroutines that can do only one thing at a time, which is why your entire Firefox session slows down when a single tab out of many encounters some kind of error.
Chrome, on the other hand, runs each big bit of code in its own dedicated "process"—distinct computational threads that enjoy their own memory resources. Just as Windows runs Photoshop and iTunes at the same time without letting each bother the other, Chrome lets its processes do different tasks in parallel. If one Chrome tab is busy loading Google Reader, another Chrome tab won't be crimped while refreshing the New York Times site. Best of all, if one process crashes, your full browser session remains intact. I've inadvertently learned many different ways to make Firefox crash; none of these tricks worked on Chrome. The best I could do was crash a single process—this brought down an individual tab, but Chrome kept running.
You aren't likely to notice Chrome's tech improvements when you load it up for the first time. What you'll see is a minimalist app, one missing several features that you're used to in other browsers. For example, Chrome presents no good way to manage bookmarks. Still, there are some innovative features. Instead of an address bar and a search box, Chrome uses only one input bar in which you're free to type either something like "slate.com" or "slate article on sarah palin." Chrome is smart enough to figure out when to take you to a Web page and when to perform a Web search. It also lists other recently visited sites containing slate, palin, or other like terms.