Can Video Games Unite Generations in Learning?
What makers of technology for early education can learn from Sesame Street.
Posted Monday, Aug. 6, 2012, at 1:45 PM
So, can a portion of the billions of hours of highly engaged, “lean-forward” participatory video-gaming be channeled toward research-based intergenerational games? Can we convince deeply skeptical moms and dads to embrace the medium not as a distraction or baby-sitter but as a means to engage with and empower their children? Will we be able to entice increasingly sophisticated youth gamers to engage with their newbie parents, perhaps taking on the role of mentor and guide? Accomplishing these goals will not only foster more valuable family time—it has the potential to drive meaningful learning and literacy gains.
There is an emerging body of research highlighting the great potential of intergenerational gameplay. For example, in 2009, the Joan Ganz Cooney Center (which one of us directs) and the University of Southern California studied video game play between adults and elementary school children. They found that kids were more engaged in learning with digital games than traditional board games and that adults learned technology skills from their kids. This work helped inspire an intergenerational game, Electric Racer, to help children and adults play together to deepen family literacy skills development. Another recent research report developed by the National Science Foundation-funded LIFE Center (based at the University of Washington, Stanford, and Northwestern) and the Cooney Center presents six case studies on the subject and found, among other things, that “joint media engagement is often initiated by children rather than parents.”
“Intergenerational” doesn’t just mean a parent and child, though. Another effort, developed by the Nokia Research Laboratory and the Cooney Center, revealed that preschool youngsters who read books together with their grandparents via a richly designed e-book delivered during a video conference call were more engaged in reading and more likely to spend additional time in early literacy experiences than children who spoke with grandparents via telephone.
Compelling intergenerational gameplay may also help demystify the medium for skeptical parents by helping them tell the difference between when their children are in a very productive “flow” state and when they are zoning out and in digital overload. This could help both parents and children learn better approaches to self-regulating their screen time, maybe even encourage industry to design game mechanics to foster self-regulation, like having characters get tired after excessive gameplay or providing special power-ups for taking a well-timed break.
For intergenerational games to be effective, though, they need to be designed to account for children’s very varied economic and cultural backgrounds. Research needs to help tease out which game mechanics are most likely to engage both parents and children from different backgrounds. If done successfully, perhaps we can even use games to attack stubborn intergenerational national problems that even Sesame Street has been unable to overcome, such as the lack of rich early literacy experiences in low-income homes or the obesity epidemic.
The more parents explore games with their kids, the more they will be equipped to seek out ones that provide engaging learning experience. This could then drive the game industry to take advantage of the burgeoning market stimulating more innovation. Maybe then video games will be as influential (in a good way) as Sesame Street has been for the past three generations.
Alan Gershenfeld is founder and president of E-Line Media, a publisher of digital entertainment that engages, educates, and empowers, and founding industry fellow at the ASU Center for Games and Impact.
Michael Levine is the founding executive director of the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop, an action research and innovation center devoted to harnessing the potential of digital media to advance young children's learning and development.