By Franklin Foer
The Washington Post reported Feb. 4 that Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's parents were Jewish converts to Catholicism and that her grandparents died in the Holocaust. Albright declared, "This was obviously a major surprise to me. I have never been told this." Many people find that hard to believe. No one criticizes Albright and her parents, refugees twice-over (first from Nazism, then from Communism), for how they chose to put their lives back together. But there is lively debate over Albright's insistence that her Jewish roots are "a major surprise."
Doubters point, first, to circumstantial evidence. How could someone as intelligent and well-versed in European history as Albright (her Ph.D. work focused on contemporary Central European politics) not have deduced her family's ancestry from what we know she knew?
Albright's father, Josef Korbel, was a foreign-service officer in the liberal interwar Czechoslovakian government. Just after she was born in 1937, he was posted to the Czech embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. But he was recalled two years later, when the Munich Pact essentially made Czechoslovakia a German province. Instead of going home, Korbel moved his family to London to join the Czech government-in-exile.
After the war, the family returned to Prague and learned, Albright says, that her three living grandparents had died. Korbel was briefly the postwar government's ambassador to Yugoslavia, but when Communists ousted the government in 1948, the family fled to the United States.
Albright knew all this. What she did not know until 1997, she says, is that her parents grew up Jewish and converted to Catholicism only sometime around the outbreak of the war. And her grandparents, along with almost all her other relatives, died in German death camps.
Should Albright have intuited these omissions? The skeptics say her parents' story begs obvious questions:
Why did a midlevel Czech diplomat harbor enough fear of Nazi persecution to uproot his family to England? Korbel was a liberal, but not necessarily prominent or active enough to worry--for that reason alone--about getting singled out.
Why did three of Albright's grandparents and most of her family die during the war? It's not clear Albright ever received an explanation. The Korbel family's casualties were especially incongruous because gentiles generally suffered less during Nazi occupation in Czechoslovakia than in other Central and Eastern European countries.
There's also Albright's relationship with her Jewish first cousin, who still lives in Prague. The cousin, Dagmar Simova, has been the media's main source of information about Albright's wartime experience. A teen-ager during the war, Simova survived in London, living with the Korbels. Simova doesn't strongly identify as a Jew, but has never been under any misapprehension about her ethnic identity. Also, Simova discovered the truth about the wartime atrocities almost immediately afterward, including her own parents' deaths in Auschwitz.