Will Sonia  Sotomayor and Elena Kagan elbow each other to greatness?

The law, lawyers, and the court.
Nov. 8 2010 4:34 PM

Supreme Court Sibling Rivalry

Will Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan elbow each other to greatness?

Sotomayor and Kagan on screen. Click image to expand.
Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan

On Oct. 18, just after beginning her sophomore year on the Supreme Court, Justice Sonia Sotomayor made an extremely surprising move. Earlier that day, in a routine, one-line order, her eight colleagues had denied a handwritten petition for review filed by an obscure, HIV-positive Louisiana inmate named Anthony Pitre. His petition was one of nearly 8,000 the court will likely deny this year. Acting alone, Sotomayor said the court should take the case—and forcefully argued that Pitre should prevail on his claim, which the lower courts had denied, that the state bureau of corrections could not force him to do hard labor after he had voluntarily stopped taking his medication.

To some court watchers, Sotomayor's highly unusual dissent from the denial of Pitre's petition was puzzling. Why had she chosen this case, which no other judge along the line had taken seriously or discussed in any detail, to disagree publicly with her colleagues? Conservatives hinted darkly at a judicial activist in the making.  Liberals smiled at one  another in barely concealed glee. All wondered whether they were witnessing the birth of the next Thurgood Marshall, a justice who would flout procedural custom to do justice for the oppressed.

Advertisement

In fact, Justice Sotomayor was taking a characteristic step for new justices: shaping her judicial identity through a striking opinion that carries meaning beyond its basic facts.  And she was doing it at a particularly significant moment: when Elena Kagan, Barack Obama's second nominee, was just starting her first term on the court. Kagan actually served as a clerk for Thurgood Marshall, the paragon of liberal activism.  For Sotomayor to gesture toward Marshall's legacy constitutes an implicit invitation to Kagan to join her. But it also stakes out a distinctive position in relation to Kagan. If her new colleague opts for the center, Sotomayor may be hinting, she will take on the role of conscience of the court.

Sotomayor and Kagan are fated to define their judicial careers in relation to each other. In a sense, they have been shadowing each other for 30 years. Each woman is a strong-willed New Yorker with an identifiable ethnic identity, and each went to Princeton University in the first years that the college began to admit women. Faced with this sometimes hostile environment, each performed brilliantly. After Yale Law School, Sotomayor became a prosecutor and from then on was on the fast track to becoming the first Latina on the Supreme Court. Kagan took the academic route to the bench, with a stop at the Clinton White House. Her deanship at Harvard, where I was a member of her faculty, was understood as a step to high office. Both Sotomayor and Kagan were on the short list for nomination when David Souter retired

Once a new appointee has fulfilled every lawyer's ambition by making it onto the court, the next step is to become a great justice.  In an insular group of highly intelligent people sentenced to work together for life, the question of leadership can be vexing. Sometimes, a justice makes his case for leadership by defining himself in subtle opposition from a colleague. The potential jockeying for position between Sotomayor and Kagan is foreshadowed by the relationship between two of the most interesting justices of the 20th century, Felix Frankfurter and Hugo Black. Their intense rivalry pushed each to heights of constitutional greatness.

When Frankfurter joined the court, he was the country's most prominent liberal lawyer, a Harvard law professor who had proclaimed the innocence of Sacco and Vanzetti and become an influential adviser to FDR. While in the academy, he pioneered the doctrine of judicial restraint, originally a liberal constitutional ideal established in opposition to the expansion of the rights of employers and businesses by a conservative activist court. With his dozens of articles and books about the Supreme Court, Frankfurter had the best claim to preeminence among his liberal allies—and he knew it.

Black, by contrast, was a former Ku Klux Klan member with a weak formal legal education. As a senator, he spent hours reading the classics and trying to educate himself; still, when he joined the court, he was woefully unprepared. His first opinion was a solo dissent arguing bravely that corporations did not have constitutional rights, since they were not "persons" under the meaning of the 14th Amendment. Black's dissent contained, in embryo, his radical and new theory that the Constitution must be interpreted according to its original meaning—the theory now called "originalism" and associated with conservative justices like Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia. At the time, however, Black's colleagues thought his work amateur and sloppy. Several encouraged Black to get lessons in judging from a leading academic— Professor Felix Frankfurter, who had not yet joined the bench.

TODAY IN SLATE

Politics

The Democrats’ War at Home

How can the president’s party defend itself from the president’s foreign policy blunders?

Congress’ Public Shaming of the Secret Service Was Political Grandstanding at Its Best

Michigan’s Tradition of Football “Toughness” Needs to Go—Starting With Coach Hoke

A Plentiful, Renewable Resource That America Keeps Overlooking

Animal manure.

Windows 8 Was So Bad That Microsoft Will Skip Straight to Windows 10

Politics

Cringing. Ducking. Mumbling.

How GOP candidates react whenever someone brings up reproductive rights or gay marriage.

Building a Better Workplace

You Deserve a Pre-cation

The smartest job perk you’ve never heard of.

Hasbro Is Cracking Down on Scrabble Players Who Turn Its Official Word List Into Popular Apps

Florida State’s New President Is Underqualified and Mistrusted. He Just Might Save the University.

  News & Politics
Politics
Sept. 30 2014 9:33 PM Political Theater With a Purpose Darrell Issa’s public shaming of the head of the Secret Service was congressional grandstanding at its best.
  Business
Moneybox
Oct. 1 2014 8:34 AM Going Private To undertake a massively ambitious energy project, you don’t need the government anymore.
  Life
Gaming
Sept. 30 2014 7:35 PM Who Owns Scrabble’s Word List? Hasbro says the list of playable words belongs to the company. Players beg to differ.
  Double X
The XX Factor
Sept. 30 2014 12:34 PM Parents, Get Your Teenage Daughters the IUD
  Slate Plus
Behind the Scenes
Sept. 30 2014 3:21 PM Meet Jordan Weissmann Five questions with Slate’s senior business and economics correspondent.
  Arts
Brow Beat
Sept. 30 2014 8:54 PM Bette Davis Talks Gender Roles in a Delightful, Animated Interview From 1963
  Technology
Future Tense
Sept. 30 2014 7:00 PM There’s Going to Be a Live-Action Tetris Movie for Some Reason
  Health & Science
Bad Astronomy
Oct. 1 2014 7:30 AM Say Hello to Our Quasi-Moon, 2014 OL339
  Sports
Sports Nut
Sept. 30 2014 5:54 PM Goodbye, Tough Guy It’s time for Michigan to fire its toughness-obsessed coach, Brady Hoke.