Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Rock the Boat
Kagan's position on military recruiters at Harvard was hardly radical.
What did Elena Kagan do about the military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy when she was dean of Harvard Law School? At the Daily Beast, Peter Beinart says Kagan barred military recruiters from campus and that she should apologize. The National Review's Ed Whelan slams her for using "strikingly extreme rhetoric" in opposing the policy.
Given how good Kagan is at playing the Sphinx, commentators are closely examining this apparent chink in her armor of inscrutability for clues to her true identity (sexual as well as political). Beinart writes that Kagan shows her true stripes and that they are anti-military. Whelan says she's probably biased in favor of gay rights. If you dig into what Kagan actually did at Harvard, though, along with the legal brief she signed in a related suit, her actions look more mild than forceful. The real, if boring, insight here may be about her endless capacity for tacking and for compromise. Even about an issue that clearly mattered to her, she was first and foremost an institutional player.
When Kagan became dean of Harvard Law School in 2003, she criticized "Don't Ask, Don't Tell," calling it "terribly wrong." But she left in place a compromise that the law school made with the military before she arrived. As the New York Times explains in helpful detail, the law school did bar military recruiters from using its Office of Career Services in 1979. In the 1990s, Congress pushed back with the Solomon Amendment, which said that no Department of Defense funds would go to universities that barred military recruiters from "entry to campuses or access to students on campuses." Harvard backed down halfway: As the NYT relates: "While the school did not allow military recruiters to use its main placement office, it did allow them on campus through the Harvard Law School Veterans Association, a student group. The recruiters met with students in the same classrooms, just under different sponsorship."
Other law schools made similar accommodations. But after 9/11, Congress decided they weren't good enough. Unless the law school gave the military "equal" access, Congress was prepared to deny the university as a whole $328 million in federal funds. With that much at stake, it wasn't much of a contest. In 2002, Kagan's predecessor as dean, Robert Clark, let the recruiters into the law school's placement office. Kagan did the same thing when she took over in 2003. In short, she never barred a military recruiter from campus. These facts make Beinart's notion that she should apologize seem weirdly heavy-handed.
Kagan did talk a bold game, as Whelan points out. "I abhor the military's discriminatory recruitment policy," she wrote in an e-mail to the law school in 2003. "This is a profound wrong—a moral injustice of the first order." Kagan continues, "And it is a wrong that tears at the fabric of our own community, because some of our members cannot, while others can, devote their professional careers to their country." But behind the talk was an accommodation that the law school made to allow the university to keep its federal funding.
Meanwhile, an association of law schools calling itself FAIR (Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights) sued over the Solomon Amendment. The law schools argued that the statute was unconstitutional because it violated their First Amendment rights of free speech and free association, by forcing them to associate with the military recruiters.
Harvard did not join the suit. Instead, Kagan and 39 other professors signed onto an amicus brief. Eight other universities filed briefs, along with 56 Columbia law professors and 44 Yale law professors. Inside the academy, practically everyone wanted on this bandwagon.
Now that "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" is on its way out (however slowly), with Republicans like Defense Secretary Robert Gates opposing it, it's hard to recapture how fervent this discussion was in the faculty lounges of America's elite law schools. But fervent it was. And it wasn't just gay professors who wanted to make this show of support, or who even led the way.
Emily Bazelon is a Slate senior editor and writes about law, family, and kids. Her forthcoming book, Sticks and Stones: Defeating the Culture of Bullying and Rediscovering the Power of Empathy and Character. Find her at email@example.com or on Facebook or Twitter.
Photograph of Elena Kagan and Barack Obama by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images.