Chechnya. Kyrgyzstan. The Caucasus: A Primer on the Complicated Region the Tsarnaev Brothers Come From

Answers to your questions about the news.
April 19 2013 12:17 PM

Chechnya. Kyrgyzstan. The Caucasus.

A primer on the complicated region the Tsarnaev brothers come from.

166984823
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the 19-year-old suspect in the Boston Marathon bombing is reintroducing the American public to the confused ethnic, linguistic, religious, and political history of the Caucasus region

Photo provided by FBI via Getty Images

The hunt for Boston Marathon terrorist suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev is reintroducing the American public to the confused ethnic, linguistic, religious, and political history of the Caucasus region. A few questions and some answers.

What Is the Caucasus?

Roughly speaking, the region is the land mass between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The isthmus between these bodies of water is bisected by an east-west mountain range. The generally arduous terrain, as well as its location at the intersection of Turkic, Persian, and Slavic cultures, gives it a very fractured and diverse ethnic landscape. On the south side of the mountains are three independent states—Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan—that were politically organized as constituent republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Entities on the north side of the mountains—among them Chechnya, Dagestan, and Ingushetia—were organized as subordinate political elements of the Russian SSR and thus became part of the post-Soviet Russian Federation. This northern area contains many non-Russian ethnic groups and several associated independence movements.

Where’s Chechnya? What’s a Chechen?

Chechnya is in the North Caucasus and is a province (“republic”) of Russia with a population of about 1.3 million people. Its primary inhabitants are Chechens, a predominantly Muslim population with their own language. Chechnya was the site of two brutal wars in the 1990s, the first of which established de facto Chechen independence from Russia and the second of which essentially crushed it. The conclusion of the Second Chechen War was followed by a prolonged insurgency that saw a nationalistic battle take on increasingly Islamist overtones. As a result of the conflict, many Chechens were displaced and now live in nearby regions.

How About Ingushetia? Is that the same thing?

Advertisement

The Republic of Ingushetia is directly to the west of Chechnya. It was never a center of regular warfare the way Chechnya proper was, but there was significant spillover fighting. The Ingush ethnic group is considered distinct from, but closely related to, the Chechens. In recent years there’s been substantial insurgent violence in Ingushetia.

And Dagestan?

Dagestan is directly east of Chechnya and like Ingushetia was a site of spillover violence during the Chechen Wars. There is no Dagestani ethnic group. Instead, the plurality of Dagestan’s residents belong to a predominantly Muslim ethnic group known as the Avars. Over the past year, Dagestan has been the most violent place in the region with assassinations of moderate religious leaders playing a prominent role in Islamist efforts to polarize the area.  

What’s the Connection to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan?

The Tsarnaev family seems to have lived for some years in Kazakhstan before coming to the United States and Dzhokhar appears to have been born in Kyrgyzstan. That’s not an unusual trajectory for Chechens displaced by the war. Many Caucasian Muslims joined an anti-Soviet insurgency during World War II, and following its defeat in 1944, Stalin forcibly deported hundreds of thousands of people—mostly Chechen—often to Kazakhstan or Kyrgyzstan. Most returned once given permission to do so in 1957, but the experience left Chechens with family and personal connections in Central Asia, so many fled there during the wars of the ’90s. Chechen refugees were not well-treated in Kazakhstan  and often border-hopped back and forth between there and Kyrgyzstan on temporary permits while seeking the ability to settle elsewhere. Chechen refugee have tended to relocate much more often to Western Europe than to the United States.

TODAY IN SLATE

Foreigners

More Than Scottish Pride

Scotland’s referendum isn’t about nationalism. It’s about a system that failed, and a new generation looking to take a chance on itself. 

What Charles Barkley Gets Wrong About Corporal Punishment and Black Culture

Why Greenland’s “Dark Snow” Should Worry You

Three Talented Actresses in Three Terrible New Shows

Why Do Some People See the Virgin Mary in Grilled Cheese?

The science that explains the human need to find meaning in coincidences.

Jurisprudence

Happy Constitution Day!

Too bad it’s almost certainly unconstitutional.

Is It Worth Paying Full Price for the iPhone 6 to Keep Your Unlimited Data Plan? We Crunch the Numbers.

What to Do if You Literally Get a Bug in Your Ear

  News & Politics
Weigel
Sept. 16 2014 7:03 PM Kansas Secretary of State Loses Battle to Protect Senator From Tough Race
  Business
Moneybox
Sept. 16 2014 4:16 PM The iPhone 6 Marks a Fresh Chance for Wireless Carriers to Kill Your Unlimited Data
  Life
The Eye
Sept. 16 2014 12:20 PM These Outdoor Cat Shelters Have More Style Than the Average Home
  Double X
The XX Factor
Sept. 15 2014 3:31 PM My Year As an Abortion Doula
  Slate Plus
Slate Plus Video
Sept. 16 2014 2:06 PM A Farewell From Emily Bazelon The former senior editor talks about her very first Slate pitch and says goodbye to the magazine.
  Arts
Brow Beat
Sept. 16 2014 8:43 PM This 17-Minute Tribute to David Fincher Is the Perfect Preparation for Gone Girl
  Technology
Future Tense
Sept. 16 2014 6:40 PM This iPhone 6 Feature Will Change Weather Forecasting
  Health & Science
Medical Examiner
Sept. 16 2014 11:46 PM The Scariest Campfire Story More horrifying than bears, snakes, or hook-handed killers.
  Sports
Sports Nut
Sept. 15 2014 9:05 PM Giving Up on Goodell How the NFL lost the trust of its most loyal reporters.