Who Can Lie to Congress?
People for the American Way, a liberal advocacy group, took out a full-page ad in 11 newspapers today accusing Attorney General-nominee John Ashcroft of misrepresenting the facts under oath during his confirmation hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee. (Click here to see the ad. You'll need Adobe Acrobat to view it.) Is it illegal to lie to Congress?
Yes, most of the time. Witnesses in congressional hearings who make false statements under oath can be prosecuted for perjury, a criminal offense. But at the same time, witnesses in legislative hearings are covered by a common-law privilege that is analogous to the legal privilege that protects witnesses in judicial proceedings. In this case, "privilege" means witnesses cannot be sued for libel or slander for the statements they make at congressional hearings. That's why Alger Hiss could not sue Whittaker Chambers for libel until Chambers accused Hiss on Meet the Press of being a Communist. Chambers' statements before the House Un-American Activities Committee were privileged and therefore protected from lawsuits. (Hiss lost the libel case.)
No one's suggesting that Ashcroft perjured himself, only that he gave artful, Clintonesque responses to questions about his record. The People for the American Way ad is equally artful in skating the perjury accusation. But what about Ashcroft's statement, made on the Senate floor last year, that Missouri Supreme Court Judge Ronnie White had a "tremendous bent toward criminal activity"? Could White sue Ashcroft for that?
No. Members of Congress are given an absolute privilege to lie with impunity in the House or Senate, if they so desire, by the Speech or Debate Clause in Article I, Section 6 of the U.S. Constitution. It states that, with regard to senators and representatives, "for Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place." The Framers of the Constitution wanted to encourage debate in Congress, and they did not want that debate chilled by the threat of lawsuits. Even if White could prove that Ashcroft's statement was false, the Constitution forbids him from bringing suit.
Statements that senators and representatives make outside of the House or Senate are not privileged, however. If a member of Congress defames you in a press release or on a talk show, you can sue him or her for libel. Of course, that doesn't mean you'll win.
To visit People for the Correct Way, a liberal advocacy group in Blorple Falls, West Carolina, click here.
Explainer thanks Sandy Davidson, professor of communications law at the University of Missouri School of Journalism.