School Lunch Is Not the Answer
Improving school food is only a small step toward reducing childhood obesity.
Food reformers savored their first big political win last year with the passage of the child nutrition bill. For two years, a diverse and sometimes unwieldy band of public-health, sustainable-agriculture, and education advocates had lobbied hard for a bill that would provide new funds for cash-strapped school lunch programs and require strict new nutrition standards on all foods sold in schools. Michelle Obama, who led the push for the bill's passage, called it a groundbreaking piece of legislation that would "play an integral role in our efforts to combat childhood obesity." Republican Sen. Saxby Chambliss of Georgia, who has not always been an ardent supporter of the school lunch program, also applauded the measure, saying, "Now that this legislation is law, I look forward to giving schools the tools they need to combat both childhood hunger and obesity."
Overhauling school food is an important task, one I have long supported. The National School Lunch Program is the country's second largest program for feeding hungry citizens, spending $8 billion annually on meats, grains, and produce. And the USDA estimates that many school children get as much as 50 percent of their calories at school. Surely we can do better than breakfast tacos and milk packed with as much sugar per serving as Coca-Cola. But amid all the media attention to school-based obesity-prevention efforts, it's easy to lose sight of the fact that improved school nutrition alone is not nearly enough to reverse the appalling rates of childhood obesity in America, where one in three children is overweight or obese (PDF). That other 50 percent of kids' caloric intake still needs to be addressed. The reasons school-food reform became a rallying point have more to do with political strategy than with the likelihood that school meals will fundamentally change children's eating habits or help them lose weight. Simply put, it's just easier to attack the way the government feeds kids than the way their parents do.
The strategizing began when President Obama took office. Food reformers at last had a leader who knew the price of arugula and, they hoped, would be sympathetic to their cause. But they needed a focused message. For years in the political wilderness, they had pushed for a grab-bag of policy reforms. Some food reformers wanted an organic garden on the White House lawn. (Check.) There were others who wanted a secretary of food. (Not yet.) Still other reformers wanted mandatory disclosure on all genetically modified food. (Definitely not yet.) The child nutrition bill, which is reauthorized every five years and includes funding for school feeding programs, was up for a vote, and it presented a seemingly agreeable way to introduce the benefits of good food to members of Congress. After all, who doesn't want school kids to eat healthy food? And picking on the dour lunch lady is, politically, a lot more feasible than telling parents they're doing a lousy job feeding their kids: Just look at how Sarah Palin reacted when she learned that cupcakes may soon be forbidden at school birthday parties in Pennsylvania. Imagine the frenzy if anyone even suggested meddling in what kids were fed at the family table.
Food reformers would, of course, disagree that it's mostly a matter of political expediency, and they have all manner of statistics and studies to demonstrate the crucial role school meals play in a healthy diet. Thirty-four percent of the calories in an average school meal come from fat, and french fries and other potato products account for a disproportionate number of the vegetables on kids' trays. Just this month, a report in the American Heart Journal seemed to suggest that just eating school lunch could make kids fat: The study of more than 1,000 sixth-graders in Michigan found that children who regularly ate school lunch were 29 percent more likely to be obese than those who brought lunch from home. Meanwhile, across the pond, where celebrity chef Jamie Oliver has long been agitating for healthy school meals, one study showed that roughly four in five children tried foods at school that they never would have touched at home. And so, in theory, the solution is obvious: If our nation's lunch ladies would dish up from-scratch plates loaded with appetizing fruits and vegetables, American children would both weigh less and be more willing to eat other healthy foods. Spinach and quinoa for all!
Jane Black, formerly a food writer at the Washington Post, is currently at work on a book about food culture and class in Huntington, W.Va. She blogs at www.janeblack.net.
Photograph by Creatas