Invasion of the Baby-Snatchers
Our irrational fear of infant abduction could be causing real harm.
Last summer, a woman wearing hospital scrubs and a backpack stepped into a room of the maternity ward at the Darnall Army Medical Center in Fort Hood, Texas. She picked up a 2-day-old baby that didn't belong to her and made for the stairs.
The hospital was just two miles up the road from where military doctor Nidal Hasan would open fire on his fellow soldiers three months later. While that crime seems to have been enabled by sloppy oversight and missed signals, the attempted kidnapping in July was foiled by an efficient, well-designed security apparatus. The baby thief tripped an "infant abduction alarm system" on her way out of the ward, and the building was placed into lockdown. Panicked, she abandoned the infant—later recovered, unhurt—and raced out of the building. Surveillance cameras in the hallway captured her face, and she was arrested four days later.
This astounding level of protection for newborn babies—hallway cameras, alarm systems and auto-locking doors—isn't unique to Army installations. Over the past 20 years, medical administrators have become increasingly attuned to the danger of baby-snatching, in which intruders posing as medical staff pilfer newborns straight from the nursery crib. In a recent survey of hospital security directors conducted by the industry trade magazine Campus Safety, 32 percent reported the purchase or planned purchase of an "infant abduction prevention solution" in 2009. That answer ranked higher than patrol vehicles, fire alarms, turnstiles, emergency lighting, and backup generators. Even with dwindling resources at their disposal, hospital managers are investing in advanced baby-snatching countermeasures like the one used at Fort Hood.
The movement to ward off kidnappings—to "harden the target," in hospital-security parlance—began in 1989, when the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) published the first edition of its cautionary manual for healthcare professionals, Guidelines on Prevention of and Response to Infant Abductions. That book, now in its ninth edition, calls for installing alarms in maternity ward stairwells, locks on every door, and security cameras for the hallways. The NCMEC also recommends that each newborn be footprinted and photographed (in color) within two hours of its birth and "quad-banded"—tagged with a pair of ID bracelets matching those worn by its mother and father. The book further suggests that a sample of the baby's cord blood be stored (to allow for later DNA analysis), and that all medical staff be given appropriate security badges. Some hospitals change the color of those badges every day, like pins at the museum, and tell the mothers which colors to expect.
Then there are the really high-tech measures, like the "Hugs" Infant Protection System (with optional "Kisses" add-on for enhanced mother/infant matching). These consist of radio transponders that tie around a baby's ankle or clamp to its umbilical cord, so the infant's location can be tracked from a nurse's station and an alarm sounded if it leaves a designated area. Here's a video demonstration. It's like baby LoJack.
Hospital administrators take the security guidelines very seriously. An institution's anti-abduction protocols are worked into marketing copy on its Web site and highlighted in recruiting tours for expectant mothers. Having a safe and secure maternity ward—a hard target for baby-snatching—has become a valuable part of the hospital sales pitch.
But there's something fishy about the newly fortified birthing centers. The truth is that no one is trying to steal your baby. It doesn't matter what kind of ID tags your hospital employs, or how many surveillance cameras are mounted in the hallway. The incidence of nonfamily infant abductions is so impossibly low—the actual crime so rare in practice—that it hardly matters at all. Yes, the attempt at Fort Hood points to the fact that a small handful of newborns are stolen every year. Yet our obsession with security has turned the figure of the baby-snatcher into a paranoid fantasy. The precautions that are now in place aren't merely unjustified. They're doing more harm than good.
Consider the stats. The NCMEC has systematically compiled information on every case of baby-snatching (PDF) since 1983, a 26-year stretch in which it has recorded a total of 267 incidents. Over the same period, 108 million babies were born in the United States. That is to say, the chance a stranger will steal your newborn—from your hospital room, your home nursery, or anywhere else—is about one in 400,000. That's a very, very small number. Here's some perspective: Your baby's odds of getting snatched are considerably smaller—five times smaller, in fact—than her odds of being struck and killed by a lightning bolt.
Some parents are more worried about baby-switching than baby-snatching. We don't have any good data on switches, but a 1996 study by the security consulting firm Inter/Action Associates estimated they're somewhat less common than abductions—happening just two or three times per year.
Even the baby-snatching numbers grossly overstate the dangers of infant abduction. With help from the FBI, analysts at the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children have thoroughly profiled the 267 criminals in their database. Some clear patterns emerge: The thief is almost always a woman of child-bearing age, usually in a relationship with a boyfriend or husband. She often commits the crime in an effort to salvage her romance: She fakes a pregnancy and tells her partner that the stolen infant belongs to him. Even when she's not trying to dupe a lover, the snatcher's intentions tend to be uncomplicated: She will care for the baby as if it were her own.
Another fact about baby-snatchers is that they almost always get caught. Like so many other parents, the rare successful baby-snatcher basks in the attention that comes with a newborn. So there's a good chance the missing infant will be paraded around the neighborhood even as the crime is covered in the local news. According to NCMEC, more than 90 percent of all infant abductions result in the baby being returned to its real family in good health. That low rate of violence is more than just a happy detail. It reveals that stolen babies are much less likely to be harmed by their captors than older kidnapping victims. The Department of Justice estimates that 100 or so children and teenagers are abducted by strangers every year. Half of these are sexually assaulted, and 40 percent are killed (PDF).