American swimmer Jessica Hardy set two world records in 2008 and was poised to take home medals from the Olympics, but she never made it to Beijing. Instead, she was booted from the Olympic team after testing positive for clenbuterol—an asthma medication that can increase muscle growth—at the Olympic trials. Like almost every athlete who’s ever tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs, Hardy insisted that she hadn’t doped. For once, this doesn’t appear to have been an outright fib.
What Hardy had taken was something called Arginine Extreme, a nutritional supplement made by AdvoCare, a multi-level marketing outfit that describes itself as a health and wellness company and was one of her sponsors. Though clenbuterol is not listed on the ingredients list, tests presented by Hardy's defense team showed that the Arginine Extreme supplements did, in fact, contain the drug. AdvoCare disputes the evidence and denies wrongdoing. The company was not a party to the arbitration proceeding and so did not question witnesses or present evidence. AdvoCare asserts that tests conducted on its behalf by two independent laboratories found no evidence of contamination in the supplements and that the ingredients listed on the products were the only ingredients found in them. During her arbitration hearing, Hardy convinced the World Anti-Doping Agency that she’d inadvertently ingested clenbuterol via a contaminated supplement, and she received only a one-year suspension instead of the usual two-year ban. Even so, she missed both the Olympics and the World Championships and lost an opportunity not just for medals and records, but also for sponsorship opportunities and income. (She’ll get another chance this month when she competes in London.)
Hardy is among a growing number of athletes who have traced a positive doping test back to a tainted supplement. Swimmer Kicker Vencill and cyclists Flavia Oliveira and Scott Moninger (an acquaintance of mine), also tested positive after taking supplements, and 400-meter gold medalist LaShawn Merritt linked his positive dope test to a product called Extenz that he picked up at 7-Eleven. The problem is so prevalent that the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) has developed an educational campaign for athletes, called Supplements 411.
Supplements are risky thanks in part to a piece of legislation passed in 1994 called the Dietary Supplements and Health Education Act. The DSHEA essentially deregulated dietary supplements, including vitamins, herbs, protein shake mixes, nutritional supplements, and other powders and pills that millions of people of all levels of athletic ability might take to improve their health. Most people assume that if a product is available on store shelves, it must be OK. But supplements are not required to be evaluated or proven safe or effective before they’re sold. New rules finalized in 2007 gave the FDA power to regulate the manufacturing and packaging of supplements, but the agency’s ability to police supplement companies remains limited by DSHEA. Its chief author and most powerful advocate is Sen. Orrin Hatch, whose home state of Utah is home to much of the U.S. supplement industry. Hatch, who attributes his good health to the supplements he takes each day, fought a recent amendment to increase the FDA's ability to regulate the industry.
FDA investigations have repeatedly found safety problems with supplements, including dangerous ingredients—everything from diet pills containing a drug previously pulled from the market due to safety concerns to body-building supplements packed with anabolic steroids. These are hardly isolated cases. A 2004 study found that 18 percent of nutritional supplements purchased in the United States contained undeclared anabolic androgenic steroids. The FDA has also warned consumers about supplements laced with dangerous levels of selenium and chromium. In 2009, college baseball player Jareem Gunter told a Senate hearing that he'd ended up in the hospital with liver failure after taking a body-building supplement, and late last year, the Army set up a probe to investigate whether body-building supplements containing dimethylamylamine, or DMAA, a stimulant that can narrow blood vessels and arteries, were involved in the deaths of two soldiers and liver and kidney damage in others.
In April, the FDA sent warning letters to 10 supplement makers and distributors marketing "natural" stimulants such as Hemo Rage Black, Jack3D, and Biorhythm SSIN Juice that contained DMAA, warning that DMAA did not qualify as a dietary ingredient. (Manufacturers told the New York Times they disagreed.) A recent Chicago Tribune investigation reported that the FDA has discovered manufacturing violations in nearly half of the 450 dietary supplement producers it has inspected since new rules gave the agency more oversight five years ago.
Given these dangers, why on earth would athletes take supplements? Hardy popped the pills expecting them to help her recover after races and practices. AdvoCare’s website makes at least nine claims about Arginine Extreme—it can “support nutrient delivery to muscles,” “promote short-term increases in nitric oxide levels,” nourish “the precursors necessary for muscle growth and recovery,” “enhance strength and stamina, (“especially when used with AdvoCare Muscle Fuel”), and help “maintain a healthy cardiovascular system” and an “efficient immune system.”