Last week, a midwife named Karen Carr pleaded guilty to two felonies for her role in a Virginia home birth and was sentenced to a few days in jail and less than $10,000 in fines and restitution. Considering the punishment she risked at trial, the plea deal seemed like a wise one: she had been indicted on a slew of charges, including involuntary manslaughter, after a delivery in which an Alexandria, Va., client's breech baby got stuck and subsequently died. Depending on your point of view, Carr is either a compassionate professional who believes in a pregnant woman's autonomy or an ideologue who acted as if she was above the law. But what is the law? Is a midwife criminally liable for a birth that goes wrong? And how often are midwives actually prosecuted?
The most serious charge in this case was involuntary manslaughter. Carr, who is based in Baltimore and has presided over 1,200 births, could have served up to 10 years if she'd been found guilty on this count—which in Virginia is defined as unintentional killing resulting from "callous disregard for human life." Involuntary manslaughter charges are brought for all manner of crimes in which someone has behaved negligently or recklessly—drunk and speeding drivers, parents who inadvertently leave their children behind in hot cars, and, in one Virginia case, a woman who let her three violent pit bulls run loose until they mauled an 82-year-old woman to death. On rare occasions, even physicians have been charged with manslaughter; take the pending case of Michael Jackson's doctor, Conrad Murray.
Chief Deputy Commonwealth Attorney Krista Boucher told me that the decision to charge Carr with involuntary manslaughter had nothing to do with the fact that she is a midwife; Boucher said that if a doctor had behaved in the same way, she would have prosecuted that doctor. Instead, she told me, it was the totality of Carr's actions that led the state to press criminal charges. So what were those actions? The facts of the case, as we know them: The mother was a 43-year-old who wanted to have her first baby at home. While it's not illegal in Virginia to deliver a breech baby at home, it is risky; another midwife practice had already turned the mother down for that reason. During the delivery, the baby's head became trapped for 20 minutes, according to an account Boucher gave to the Washington Post, and then Carr and two assistants tried to get his lungs going for 13 minutes before calling 911. The baby never became conscious and was taken off life support two days later, the Post reported.
Midwife manslaughter cases are unusual, perhaps in part because moms with high-risk pregnancies are more likely to deliver in hospitals. I located just five criminal cases similar to Carr's over the last decade or so, and they have tended not to be slam dunks. In Pennsylvania in 2009, a midwife was acquitted of involuntary manslaughter and endangering the welfare of a child after the death of a breech baby. The judge called her behavior "abhorrent" but said her acts didn't rise to the legal standard for either charge. The midwife was instead convicted of practicing midwifery without a license, and she paid a $100 fine. (Meanwhile, the parents defended her, saying she honored their wishes not to deliver in a hospital.) In Illinois in 2000, yet another breech baby died after becoming stuck in the birth canal. A jury acquitted the presiding midwife of one charge of involuntary manslaughter and deadlocked on the second. To avoid a retrial, she later pleaded guilty to reckless conduct, a misdemeanor charge, and was sentenced to 18 months probation.
Such cases may also be rare because families are often reluctant to press charges. Take the case of another Virginia midwife who in 1999 was charged with involuntary manslaughter when a woman in her care died hours after a home birth. Her defense said it was prepared to pick apart the state's medical evidence, but the fact that the woman's husband declined to cooperate with prosecutors may have inclined them to cut a deal. The midwife ultimately pleaded guilty to several lesser misdemeanor charges.
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