The Solo Cup
How the disposable drinking vessel became an American party staple.
Courtesy Solo Cup Co.
A short while back I was walking through a grocery store when I noticed a radical development. The classic red Solo cup—a keg party staple for nearly four decades—had switched from a round to a square bottom.
This seemed unnatural. Could it be true that college students across the nation were experiencing a wholly different world from the one I'd known? So ubiquitous were these plastic cups in my undergrad days, tweaking them in even the slightest fashion would have altered my entire visual landscape. It'd be akin to a Manhattanite awaking one morning to find New York City’s yellow cabs had all been painted fuchsia.
Should you doubt the cup’s cultural significance, I would point you toward a brand new Toby Keith song titled “Red Solo Cup.” The song opens with these lyrics: “Red Solo cup is the best receptacle for barbecues, tailgates, fairs, and festivals. And you, sir, do not have a pair of testicles if you prefer drinking from a glass.” The tune’s admirably forthright chorus: “I love you, red Solo cup. I fill you up. Proceed to party. Proceed to party.”
So quintessentially American is the red Solo cup, it is available for sale through a specialty website—Party Cups U.K.—targeting British revelers who wish to re-create the ambience of a land-grant university frat house. The site sells nothing but red Solo cups, and every order includes printed rulebooks for Beer Pong and Flip Cup, which the home page informs us are “the Americans’ drinking games of choice.” With a veritable national icon on its hands, why would Solo risk changing the design?
The company itself boasts a rich history. This fall marks the 75th birthday of the Illinois-based Solo Cup Co., which first made its mark in the 1940s with a small paper cone that often perched on the sides of office water coolers. In the 1950s, Solo made wax-lined cups that proved ideal for the takeaway fountain sodas served at drive-in movie theaters. Nowadays, the company manufactures all manner of single-use dinnerware, cutlery, and beverage receptacles. Its products are found in supermarkets, convenience stores, coffee shops, and fast food restaurants across the globe (as well as in the White House Situation Room). But it remains best known for the red party cup, which launched in the 1970s.
Courtesy Universal Pictures.
How did the red cup become synonymous with good times, keg draughts, and sticky-floored basements? “The history is a little sketchy,” says Kim Healy, VP of consumer business for Solo. “We know we were one of the first to introduce a party cup.”
So perhaps first-mover advantage played a role, with followers clamoring to emulate Solo’s technological breakthrough? For surely the quality of the design played a part. From the beginning, this has been the Sherman tank of disposable mealware. Made of thick, molded polystyrene, the Solo party cup could be squeezed in meaty frat-guy paws, dropped to the ground by tipsy highschool cheerleaders, and mercilessly battered by Flip Cup contestants—all while maintaining shape and functionality. It was stiffer and more resilient than competitor party cups like Dixie’s.
No doubt the cup’s opacity was a selling point for underage college and high-school drinkers who would prefer not to reveal exactly what they’re sipping. But why red? Healy says the red-colored cups make up 60 percent of Solo party cup sales, with blue cups a distant second. “I’ve been here 12 years, and I’ve tested this over and over. Consumers prefer red, and it’s not very close. I think for one thing it’s a neutral color that’s appealing to both men and women. It’s also just become a standard.” Perhaps it is a psychologically ingrained preference, as well. Some color theory holds that red signifies concepts like energy, passion, and emotional intensity, while blue is linked with tranquility and depth. I know which set of associations I’d rather trigger at my drunken beer blast.
Seth Stevenson is a frequent contributor to Slate. He is the author of Grounded: A Down to Earth Journey Around the World.