Chad, I think I might be able to answer at least one of your myriad questions. With regard to Richard's request for eternal life: Recall that Richard previously wished for absolution so that he wouldn't be sent to hell. When Jacob refuses this wish, Richard then decides he wants to live forever—presumably because if he never dies, he'll never have to go to hell. Seem reasonable? Of course, the island is a sort of hell unto itself, so it's not clear why Richard would want to spend eternity in its confines. But cut him a break. He was in a heightened emotional state during that conversation with Jacob. He might just as easily have requested a juicy cheeseburger.
I'm not bothered by the ship toppling the statue. A little tugging from an American tank brought down that huge Baghdad statue of Saddam Hussein in the early days of the Iraq war. Maybe the four-toed statue was already crumbling? Perhaps Jacob didn't use enough rebar? I'm willing to believe it's possible for a giant, hurtling ship to knock a poorly constructed monument off its pedestal.
As for the blue butterfly—what about the island as a sort of spiritual cocoon? It causes Jacob's hand-chosen (human) pupae to transform into (emotionally) beautiful butterflies? Whatever. I'm not a lepidopterist. Work with me here.
Slate V: Previously on Lost